Constant cravings? Here’s 18 evidence-backed (or anecdotal) tips that will curb them.

Are you back into the swing of things but your taste buds aren’t?  It happens! Especially around this time of year where intake of sugar, alcohol and processed carbohydrates tends to be higher for most people, and while going cold turkey can be the best move, it’s sometimes easier said than done. The good news is that by reducing these foods, you’ll begin to lose the taste for them, and they’ll no longer hold the appeal that they had. For some though, completely removing them is a better idea – even small amounts can continue to drive the appetite for them. Regardless of which camp you fall into, here are some proven, some anecdotal, and some interesting ways to combat those cravings.

  1. The basics: build your plate based around protein and fibre, with fat for satiety. Protein is well known to be the most satisfying nutrient, and along with fibre (also key for adding bulk and feeling full) will keep most people satisfied longer than either carbohydrate or fat. Any starchy or carbohydrate-based foods are best if they are minimally processed (such as potatoes, kumara, legumes, fruit) as these will provide more nutrient bang for your buck). How much of each? Protein-type foods (meat, fish, eggs, poultry) aim for 1-2 palm-sized portions. Starchy carbs (if included) at around a fist-sized amount.  Fat? 1-2 thumb-sized amounts, depending on the type of protein portion you’re eating: a fattier cut might be satisfying enough, however a lean chicken breast will likely require some added fat to help satisfy you. And vegetables? Go for gold – other than the starchier varieties (mentioned above) you could fill your boots with these. For some people, having a full plate is essential to feeling satisfied and if you can do that by adding more volume, it is going to have a positive effect on the satiety from a meal (that’s definitely me). For some ideas, check out my recipe e-book or my online coaching service.
  2. Get rid of anything that is ‘your poison’- if you are the person that hears the icecream calling you from the freezer, it is much better off out of the house. Out of sight, out of mind.
  3. Put all the ‘treat’ type food in one place in your house, preferably above eye level. This will save you seeing the Christmas cake when you are grabbing the eggs, and the chocolate almonds when you are searching for the bottle of olive oil. Constant reminders of all the things you are trying not to eat will NOT help your cause.
  4. Chew your food properly at each meal. Aim for 30 times per mouthful. That way you’ll digest your nutrients effectively, feel more nourished and less likely to be hungry an hour after eating because you wolfed that meal down.
  5. Do not substitute those refined sugars for ‘natural’ sugars. That dried fruit is pretty much just sugar – and (a few nutrients and fibre aside) no better than sugar and will continue to drive your sugar cravings. You shouldn’t rely on dried fruit (or any sweet food that is marketed as ‘refined sugar free’) as a substantial nutrient source . Any additional fibre or nutrients they provide in the diet is negligible compared to the whack of goodness you’ll get when you follow #1 above. When health bloggers or food producers market something based on the healthfulness of the ‘natural’ sugar, it is pure embellishment. 6 meedjol dates and a banana does not make a smoothie sugar free.
  6. Coconut oil – this is a favourite of Sarah Wilson’s: a teaspoon of extra virgin coconut oil can kill a craving in its tracks. If we head to the literature to find any peer reviewed papers on the topic (for what it’s worth, there is a LOT of research published by the Coconut Research Center), there isn’t a lot to definitively tell us that it will cut cravings. That said, there is some research has found that people who include more coconut oil in their diet (compared to other types of fat) have reduced food intake overall, particularly in the subsequent meals. Like most things, you have nothing to lose by trying it.
  7. Cocoa – chocolate is long associated with cravings, though right now, consumption of chocolate may well increase the cravings rather than stamp them out. It’s also not exactly useful if you’re trying to focus on reducing your intake of junk food! That said, chocolate is known for its cognitive and mood enhancing benefits. So how about some unsweetened cocoa (or cacao) in hot water with some milk to deliver the chocolate taste you are after. Add a touch of stevia if you wish. You could also do this cold with almond milk and ice – and add 1 tablespoon of psyllium husk or gelatin in there for some additional fibre or protein. If chocolate is what you’re after – go for the darkest that you can stand. Many people find they stop at 1-2 pieces of 90% chocolate instead of the 1-2 rows consumed of the 70%.
  8. Anything that lowers your blood sugar response to a meal is going to positively impact your cravings. The steep rise and fall of your blood sugar in response to a meal causes alarm bells to start going off in your brain. The body runs a tight ship and prefers when all systems are in homeostasis. Low blood sugar causes a release in stress hormones which tell your liver to dump glucose into the bloodstream, and create cravings so you can re-establish blood sugar to within a normal range. Including cinnamon can reduces glucose response after a meal (in amounts of 6g) and affects insulin response. Stabilising blood sugar is going to help reduce cravings. Sprinkle this gold dust on your breakfast, with your teaspoon of coconut oil, in your cocoa drink etc.
  9. Glutamine – can enhance secretion of GLP-1, a hormone which promotes insulin release that helps increase satiety and dampen appetite – this is only seen in some people however, suggesting there is individual variation of its effects. The flipside of this is that the insulin-releasing effects may override any satiety benefits, increasing hunger (and subsequent meal size) at the next meal. However, in practice this is a tool that many clinicians (myself included) have found useful for some (but not all) clients. The presence of glutamine in the bloodstream is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in healthy people. In addition to this, glutamine has been found to be beneficial for improving intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in the gut, being one of the most abundant amino acids in the body. If your cravings are related to gut dysbiosis then it could be useful from this perspective. In addition, it functions as part of neurotransmitter production. Taking L Glutamine by putting it under the tongue as a craving hits (1-3,000mg) may just work for you.
  10. Magnesium is a nutrient that is involved in over 250 processes in our body, and particularly when we are under stress, it is put under the pump. Sugar (or specifically) chocolate craving is often linked to a deficiency to magnesium, but that isn’t conclusive. At any rate, magnesium is perfectly safe to take, and as our food supply is relatively low in magnesium, looking for a supplement that is a magnesium glycinate, citrate or chelated with amino acids may be useful, at amounts of around 300-400mg elemental magnesium.
  11. Chromium is another supplement that some people have found useful for stopping cravings – research has found a reduction in carbohydrate cravings, food intake and an increase in satiety when supplementing with chromium…however this is in the laboratory using mice. There’s nothing definitive in the research to support using it for people who already have adequate amounts of this mineral. That said (as with anything), it’s individual – I know many clients who swear by using Chromium supplements when a craving hits. The only way to know if it works for you is to try it, by taking 1000mg chromium in two doses in meals that contain carbohydrate (due to its suggested benefits at reducing blood sugar response to carbohydrate meals)..
  12. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three amino acids that act as nutrient signallers which may help reduce food intake . Leucine (one of the BCAAs) activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is required for our brain to respond to leptin (a hormone that tells our body when we have had enough food). BCAAs are involved with hormone release in both the gastrointestinal tract and in fat deposits. BCAAs and dietary protein enhanced glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release and reduced the expression of genes required for synthesis and adsorption of fatty acids in a human intestinal cell line (NCI-H716), suggesting an intestinal mechanism for the beneficial effect of BCAAs. Those that have successfully used BCAAs suggest 5g in the AM and every few hours while you’re adjusting your diet back to baseline awesomeness.
  13. 5htp: 300-500mg taken with a meal to increase satiety of the meal – studies have found a reduced food intake (particularly carbohydrate). Studies conducted have focused on people who have reduced availability of tryptophan in the brain (a precursor to 5htp). Increasing 5htp increases tryptophan and therefore serotonin production, reducing cravings and overall food intake. (Don’t use if you are currently on antidepressants without clearance from your doctor.)
  14. Exercise. A no brainer, really, but research has found this to be super effective for reducing cravings. In fact, any activity done while in the midst of a craving will take your mind off it. So when a craving hits, doing something active for 10-15 minutes can reduce your desire for something sweet. Go for a powerwalk, shoot some hoops, do some hill sprints…
  15. Make sure you’re getting enough sleep! It’s hard this time of year with longer days and opportunities to take advantage of summer (when it shows up…) Sleep restriction enhances activity in brain regions involved in reward in response to energy dense, nutrient-void food (think: lollies, chips, chocolate), suggesting heightened sensitivity to rewarding properties of food. This can lead to increased cravings. If you are burning the candle at both ends and not yet back to your regular 7-8 hours sleep per night, then nailing this will go a long way to helping curb that sugar demon.
  16. Meditation: decentring – viewing your thoughts as separate from yourself – has been found to help reduce food cravings and want for unhealthy food items. Mindfulness practice is also useful for not only reduced cravings, but for reduced emotional eating, body image concerns. It doesn’t require a 90 minute class three times a week (though there’s nothing wrong with that!) Headspace, Calm or Buddhify are three smart phone applications which may help you get going and provide guided sessions of between 2-20 minutes long. It’s consistency and frequency that makes a difference (like any habit).
  17. Clay modelling to reduce cravings: yep. Researchers found that visual imagery plays a key role in reducing craving. Participants who worked for 10 minutes constructing shapes from plastacine had reduced cravings for chocolate compared to people who were left to their own thoughts or who were given a written task.
  18. Your gut bacteria can influence your cravings. There is indirect evidence for a connection between cravings and the type of bacteria lurking in your gut. For example, people who enjoy and crave chocolate have different microbial metabolites (i.e. bacteria by-products) in their urine than “chocolate indifferent” individuals, despite eating identical diets. In addition, gut bacteria can influence the production of our ‘feel good’ and motivation hormones (serotonin and dopamine), thereby influence food decision-making based on our mood. Finally treating mice with a probiotic reduced hunger-inducing hormones and food intake. Action points here? Yes, you could start with a probiotic, particularly when you’re in the thick of it all, as this will help ensure there are beneficial bacterial strains present in your gut. However, for ongoing gut health, the regular addition of probiotic and prebiotics through food will help you maintain a healthy gut microbiome. Therefore:
  • Include fermented vegetables into 1-2 meals daily, working up to 1-2 tablespoons at a time.
  • The addition of unsweetened yoghurt (dairy or coconut) as part of your everyday diet (as it contains beneficial bacteria).
  • Kombucha, at around 100-150ml per day (check the back of the label to ensure a lower sugar variety).
  • Water, milk or coconut kefir, start with around 100ml per day.
  • Raw apple cider vinegar in water – start with 1 tsp in a small amount of water, working up to 1 tablespoon. This will help stimulate stomach acid when taken prior to meals, helping you digest your food properly, and delaying gastric emptying, so your glucose response to the meal will be slower too.
  • Vegetables, in abundance, to include fibres that feed your gut bacteria.

(As a side note, any change to your gut environment can result in unintended (and unwanted) changes to your digestive tract! If you’re new to the fermented foods and/or probiotics, then start small and work your way up. If you end up spending way more time in the bathroom than you wanted, reduce back further. Consider yourself warned.)

You won’t need to do all of these – but I think #1-5, #14, #15, #16 and #18 would completely diminish that sugar demon so you can get back to feeling awesome.

cravings

Grab that cupcake and bin it immediately. Underneath something that will stop you from retrieving it later on. (PC: SamadiMD.com)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you need to snack? Here’s 31 ideas just in case (and because you’re awesome).

Sometimes you just want some new ideas. Or it’s a day where you just feel like mooching around and making a few things in the kitchen.

Snacking. As I said earlier this week on Facebook, I’m not a fan of snacking for most people as it often means they haven’t eaten properly in the previous meal, thus their need for a snack is due to roller coasting blood sugar levels which affects their stress hormones, energy and mood.

However, sometimes you just need to snack. And if you’ve eaten what you normally KNOW is a balanced meal with plenty of vegetables, a good hit of protein and some fat, but still feel hungry – then you should probably eat. And if you’re not sure what a balanced meal looks like, then check out Jamie’s blog discussing the Heart Foundation’s take on paleo – he outlines what his meals look like. Pretty simple. (And do read the whole post – it’s GREAT).

Ignoring your hunger cues is not good in the long term – yes, even if your goal right now is to lean up, if you’re eating well and exercising appropriately, then it’s likely your muscle mass is increasing and you need to feed it! Don’t use the scales as a guide to your progress – this is gravitational pull – nothing more. In the last 6 months I’ve gained 10 kg to help restore hormonal equilibrium to my over-stressed body – and while on paper it might look like a lot, visually it’s not what you would imagine it to be, as I’ve kept up weight training and gotten a lot stronger. Of course I’ve got more body fat, but I’m a lot healthier too because I’ve got more muscle; it’s had the opportunity to grow as it hasn’t been broken down to use as fuel (which can happen when you’re over-stressed). The scales tell you nothing about the composition of your body. To under fuel (even when trying to lean up) would put your body in a catabolic state, stripping muscle and potentially bone too if you go too low in calories (protein is the major component of bone, you know).

The more you listen to your body and NOT eat to a schedule, set calorie number or macro nutrient goal, the better you will be at at figuring out what your body needs. For most people, we lose this ability at a very early age, because we are told to ‘eat everything on our plates because there are starving children in Africa.’ I feel sorry for parents actually, as almost everyone I know blames their parents for a certain lack of intuition around their eating. It’s not their fault. They were told the same thing.  The good news is, though, is that it’s not irreversible. We just have to start being more aware of what we eat (processed food which is quickly digested, low in fat or protein and not satisfying), how we eat (fast, slow), where we eat (at the table? in front of the TV?) and how much attention we are actually paying to what we eat (device use, TV etc). Here’s some quick tips about mindful eating. You can retrain yourself to listen to your body. It just takes time and effort, but it will be worth it. I’ve just ordered this book too – I’ve heard great things about it and think it will be a really valuable resource.

So back to snacks. Muesli bars, low fat fruit yoghurt and snack packs of Snax crackers are going to leave you hungrier than before you ate them. They are developed to provide the sensory pleasure to your brain that makes you want to eat more (called a Bliss point). They are also high in processed carbohydrate or sugar (especially that fruit yoghurt, these new yoghurt pouches have 4 teaspoons of sugar, around 3 of them from added sugar) which are just best avoided.

Here’s 31 other ideas in case you need some more inspo.

  1. A couple of hardboiled eggs (boil a dozen at the start of the week and make your way through them. They’ll last a good 5 days unpeeled).
  2. A couple of cooked chicken drumsticks (meat that is closer to the bone is far tastier and there are far more nutrients than just pure muscle meat).
  3. Half an avocado, seasoned with salt and pepper.
  4. Around 40g cheese (not Edam. Unless you really enjoy it! Full fat dairy has many important health benefits which for some reason got overlooked with the updated food guidelines. Didn’t they read my blog?
  5. Meatballs – make these and freeze in single serve packs to have an easy go-to snack. Try my sesame miso meatballs.
  6. Almost 4 ingredient chocolate chai brownie. No sugar added at all (I promise).
  7. Raspberry coconut berry bites.
  8. Lemon coconut lunchbox treat. Again, no sugar was harmed in the making of this deliciousness.
  9. A scoop of protein powder with minimal added crap (such as Clean Lean Protein, Vital Health, Balance Natural Whey powder) + ½ cup of full fat Greek yogurt topped with berries. There are many better quality protein powders now available on the market. And while protein powders aren’t my go-to for every day eating, those people who are more active and require protein to support their lifestyle, OR for people who for some reason can’t or don’t eat animal source protein, they can be a good addition to the diet. However there are many CRAP products out there, with a lot of additional fillers, preservatives, additives for flavour, thickeners etc. Check the ingredient lists.
  10. Half an avocado with 1/2 can salmon mixed in, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
  11. Steam some greens (broccoli, brussel sprouts, beans) + drizzle with 1-2 tablespoons of olive oil or butter, add salt and pepper.
  12. Vegetable chips (bit of prep) but thin sliced beetroot, carrot, parsnip, tossed in bag with 2 Tbsp olive or coconut oil + spice of choice OR salt/pepper – baked in preheated oven of 170 deg (350 deg far) for 10-12 min.
  13. Tamari almonds from Alison’s Pantry. These are dry roasted, unlike many that you find that are roasted in vegetable oils.
  14. A handful of Pure Delish cereal (look for 10g/100g or less sugar per 100g) – I love this cereal but to be honest, as a breakfast I’m not going to recommend it as a go-to. I think the brand itself is great, and perfect for tramping/camping as an easy breakfast option. But if you want to ensure you’re not going to go hungry, start your day with a bit more protein. This would fill you up but it is easy to over eat in order to feel satisfied.
  15. The only plant that would survive a nuclear holocaust chips, like these Ceres Organics ones. Hello. Delicious, but wow – expensive! Obviously super easy to make these yourself (many delicious ways to do this).
  16. Kelp leaves flash fried in coconut oil with salt (a great source of iodine, a mineral important for our thyroid function which isn’t easily available in the food supply for people who don’t enjoy seafood). This kiwi (and local to me!) product is seriously tasty.
  17. Dried meat snacks (Biltong, bier sticks) – such as Canterbury I love Epic bars in the States but while some are made with quality NZ meat, they aren’t available here. It’s hard to come by a brand which is minimally processed, so definitely read the ingredients list. Jack Links (despite the great radio adverts which I think are awesome – is NOT a great product. When you try Canterbury V Jack Links, you can taste the difference too – alongside the addition of preservatives other than spices and salt, it is a sweeter product, with 20g of sugar per 100g product, compared to between 1-3g per 100g for Canterbury.
  18. Crackers free of grains, such as Little Bird or Flackers – or make your own. Super simple and a lot cheaper too. There are a lot of variations to these, here’s mine.
  19. Apple slices layered with a tablespoon of peanut butter + 1 tsp chia seeds mixed through
  20. Meedjol date sliced lengthways, with salted pistachio nuts stuffed inside. This is small and not at all lower carb. Delicious though.
  21. Large tomato, scoop out middle, crack an egg in, grate some parmesan cheese, bake in a 180 degree oven till egg is cooked.
  22. The Vegery snack wraps: hello delicious! These would be a great lunch on the go or for a snack. Try the apple and coffee one with some peanut butter and grated carrot. Delicious.
  23. ½ cup cottage cheese + ½ small sliced banana + a handful of walnut halves.
  24. Rice paper (which has been dunked in warm water to soften, then patted dry, wrapped around sliced avocado, a slice smoke salmon, cucumber, grated carrot, snow peas.
  25. Lightly toast a handful of sunflower seeds in a pan, then pop some into a pitted avocado half, salt + pepper. Delicious change of texture.
  26. Cheese + sliced red pepper sliced wrapped in ham that has been sliced thinly off the bone.
  27. ¼ cup hummus (ideally home-made, like Jamie’s one, he is awesome) + teaspoon of pesto in bottom of jar, carrot/cucumber sticks standing up in them. Try to choose a pesto that has an olive oil base, such as this Genose one – not one that is made on a canola oil base.
  28. Apple slices cooked in coconut oil and topped with haloumi, a’la Sarah Wilson style.
  29. A leftover sausage, split into half lengthways, with some cheese grated into it and mustard, heated in microwave.
  30. A slice of my tahini chia loaf with avocado. Yum.
  31. 2 squares of 90% Lindt with a teaspoon of almond or peanut butter. Decadent. You’re worth it.

And I’ve plenty of other ideas where these come from. If you would like more individualised help, check out my services page or sign up to my online nutrition coaching system – it’s free for 28 days for you to try!

snack

PC: www. revive.ca

The Gout: what you need to know and 7 things you can do about it.

  1. Gout is an auto-inflammatory disease caused by a disorder in purine metabolism and the resulted chronic elevation of blood (serum) uric acid (i.e., hyperuricemia)
  2. Men have a higher risk of gout at a lower given blood level of uric acid, and at a lower age than women – generally 10 years earlier.
  3. Women who go through early menopause, or have estrogen deficiency are at higher risk than women who progress through menopause at a normal age, due to oestrogen’s role in increasing uric acid excretion.
  4. Insulin resistance increases risk of gout, as insulin reduces uric acid secretion. The relationship between insulin resistance and gout is more pronounced in women than in men.
  5. There is a bi-directional relationship between high blood pressure and gout: ie if you have high blood pressure, your risk of gout goes up (independent of diuretic medication that is taken), and if you have gout, your risk of developing high blood pressure also increases. High blood pressure can result in damage to kidney and a reduction in uric acid excretion, and the inflammation associated with gout can stiffen and damage arterial walls, and reduces production of nitric oxide – which helps widen arteries.
  6. Genetics play a role in determining risk associated with gout – and people with a particular genetic profile (such as those of European descent with the SNP sequence SLC2A9 as an example) have an increased risk, as do those with ABCG2 rs2231142. However, as with any genetic risk factor, lifestyle determines if these genes are switched on or off, so while this information could be useful (and more people are starting to find out their genetic profile and determine what it means for their health), it is your lifestyle habits predominately regulate overall risk
  7. Triglycerides increase in the bloodstream when people overeat refined carbohydrate foods, and recent research suggests a reduction in serum uric acid occurs when triglycerides decrease.
  8. Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of gout – beer more so than wine.
  9. Overall fructose load in the diet is the only type of carbohydrate that is known to increase uric acid levels, potentially because when metabolised, it depletes phosphate and therefore doesn’t help produce ATP (energy) in the body and instead increases uric acid production. Fructose from processed food (and particularly sugary sweetened beverages) can elevate insulin levels and increase risk of insulin resistance. There may be a genetic element to this also, with people who have polymorphisms in SLCA9 and ABCG2 genes responding unfavourably to a load of fructose.
  10. A large cross sectional survey found that people following a vegan diet had the highest serum uric acid concentrations compared to fish eaters, meat eaters and vegetarians, independent of smoking status or alcohol intake.
  11. While seafood is often cautioned against for people who experience gout due to its purine content, a number of studies have failed to find a relationship between seafood intake and serum uric acid levels. Those that have found a relationship may not have adjusted for body mass index (BMI), which can confound the relationship as it did in this study. Indeed, those populations who are at greater risk today (such as Maori and Pacific among New Zealand population) enjoyed a traditional diet of predominantly seafood, vegetation, tubers and gout was non-existent.

What to do?

  1. Look after your gut. Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are increased, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted in the gut of people who experience gout, suggesting a strong correlation with the presence of gout. F prausnitzii is one of the most abundant bacterium in the gut of a healthy individual, helping produce short chain fatty acids butyrate, which is fuel for our gut bacteria, and the provision of B pseudocatenulatum improves markers of gut wall integrity. So these are pretty important! While this doesn’t necessarily mean that the provision of certain bacteria through probiotics will reduce gout attacks, it does suggest that inflammatory processes of the gut play a role in the presentation of gout and provides further evidence of the importance of a diverse population of bacteria in the gut for overall health.
  2. Supplementing with 1500mg vitamin C reduces serum uric acid and its antioxidant functions may also help kidney function by reducing inflammation.
  3. Like your coffee? You don’t have to go without if you have gout and in fact, 4-5 cups per day have found to decrease serum uric acid that isn’t seen with green or black tea, or total caffeine intake. Decaffeinated coffee has afforded similar benefits, leading investigators to suggest the phenol content (phytochemicals) might increase insulin sensitivity and decrease serum insulin, as discussed above insulin levels have a positive correlation with uric acid due to decreased renal excretion. Furthermore, xanthines, either in caffeine or in coffee itself, could inhibit xanthine oxidase – an enzyme that increases reactive oxygen species (and inflammation).
  4. Magnesium intake is associated with a decreased serum uric acid level in males, and marginal intakes is associated with higher levels of markers in the body indicative of inflammation. Magnesium is low in soil which makes dietary sources of the micronutrient not as high as they once were, therefore supplementing with magnesium of 300-600mg/day (depending on bowel tolerance) is likely a good idea. (To be honest, I’m a big fan of magnesium supplementation for pretty much anyone male or female, given it’s a co-factor in over 300 processes in the body).
  5. Tart cherry extract – not just useful for sleep – is found to reduce the prevalence of gout flare ups in cross sectional studies, potentially due to the presence of polyphenols including anthocyanins, and vitamin C found in the fruit, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant affects.
  6. The consumption of low fat dairy products is linked to a lower risk of gout in larger population studies.*
  7. Anecdotally (as in, I didn’t find any study on pubmed to support this), baking soda is used to increase pH level of the blood (¼ teaspoon in water), thus making uric acid in the blood able to be excreted. If you know of any studies around this that I’ve missed, let me know!)

The take-home?

While a low purine diet is often recommended as a dietary prescription for people with gout, many purine-containing foods (such as seafood and vegetables) do not contribute to hyperuricemia or gout and may in fact be protective. The effects of red meat consumption on serum acid levels are arguably hard to disentangle from other elements of the modern dietary pattern, and are often in conjunction with higher alcohol intake, lower fruit and vegetable consumption and higher fast-food intake – all contributors to inflammation in the body. In addition, the agricultural practices of the cattle industry in countries such as the US where many of the epidemiological studies that associate red meat with poor health (including higher serum uric acid levels) include the use of antibiotics, poor farming practices and animals that are grain and not grass fed, altering the fatty acid profile of the meat to be higher in omega 6, pro-inflammatory fats. Furthermore, processed and fresh meat is often grouped together – thus a steak is viewed the same as a hamburger from a fast-food outlet – the latter often being in the company of a bun, fries, mayonnaise made with industrial seed oils and a sugar sweetened beverage – the adverse effects which many, myself included, argue cannot be adjusted away by a statistician when determining risk.

*I don’t think you need to start consuming low fat dairy if right now you’re enjoying the benefits of full-fat dairy in the context of an awesome diet. I think this could well be indicative of overall lifestyle patterns. I’d be surprised if there were studies showing that risk of gout is increased in a diet that is whole food, minimally processed, an abundance of vegetables that also incorporated full-fat dairy products.

 

14 reasons to ditch the toast and jam (and 7 key tips to help you do this).

After feeling like I’d taken a trip back to 2003 with some of the sports nutrition posts and articles I’d been reading lately, I got tagged in a cool picture from a listener of our Fitter Radio podcast  – a triathlete who has switched from the traditional higher carb, lower fat diet approach to eating lower carb, higher fat, real food whilst training and commented she ‘didn’t know her 41 year old body could be the best body I have ever had’ (Woot! high fives all around!!) This coincided with finishing Mark Sisson’s Primal Endurance book.

Mark outlines 115 reasons why athletes should train and eat the Primal Endurance way. I concurred with pretty much all of them. I have added my own 2c worth, added some literature below (and cut it down to 21 for brevity’s sake). While geared towards athletes, hands down this is applicable to everyone. Everyone.

So if you’re currently eating toast and jam pre OR post training (or in general), I’ve outlined the 14 reasons why you need to ditch that junk and become a fat burning beast, and 7 key tips to help you get there.

  1. Western diet is based on excess grains and sugars (and low fibre) which stimulates excess insulin production, leading to lifelong insidious weight gain, chronic inflammation and elevated disease risk factors.
  2. A high carb, grain-based diet can leave endurance athletes nutrient deficient (due to phytic acid effects on minerals), inflamed and more susceptible to the oxidative damage of the stress of training, general life and poor nutrition.
  3. The way that most people consume modern grains (cereals, breads, pasta) ends up being a cheap source of calories which are immediately turned into glucose upon ingestion and offer minimal nutritional value. There are no good reasons to consume these types of grains and many good reasons not to, especially for those who are sensitive to gluten and other anti-nutrients found in wheat.
  4. Everyone is sensitive to the health compromising effects of grains at some level, especially the pro-inflammatory effects of gluten and the propensity for the lectins in grains to cause leaky gut syndrome.
  5. Even lean people suffer from the consequences of carbohydrate dependency, such as chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and accelerated ageing and disease risk factors.
  6. Carrying excess body fat despite careful attention to diet and a high training load is largely due to carbohydrate dependency caused by a grain-based diet and chronic training patterns.
  7. Carbohydrate dependency cycle looks like this: consume a high carbohydrate meal – elevate bloods sugar – stimulate an insulin response – shut off fat metabolism and promote fat storage – experience fatigue and sugar cravings – low blood sugar elicits stress response and we consume more carbohydrates – stimulate the fight or flight response to regulate blood sugar – dysregulate and exhaust assorted hormonal processes, and end up in burnout and weight gain (potentially lifelong)
  8. Weight loss through portion control, low fat foods and calorie burning is ineffective long term. And while we think calories burned through exercise stimulate a corresponding increase in appetite – research might not back this up. I tend to think that people are more likely to eat more because they ‘reward’ themselves OR the long slow training allows increased opportunity to eat sports ‘junk food’ and the amount of calories burnt through training is far less than you think – and overestimated more so in females in certain instances. At any rate, the secret to weight loss is hormone optimisation, primarily through moderating excess insulin production.
  9. Endurance athletes can begin to dial in to their optimal carbohydrate intake by asking themselves the question ‘do I carry excess body fat?’ Any excess body fat calls for a reduction in dietary carbohydrate intake to accelerate fat burning.
  10. Endurance athletes who already have an optimal body composition but are looking to optimise training and recovery should choose high nutrient value carbohydrates. These include a high volume of vegetables, a moderate fruit intake, kumara/potatoes and other starchy tubers, dairy for those that tolerate, wild rice, quinoa and small amounts of dark chocolate.
  11. Endurance athletes with high calorie needs who also have an optimal body composition can enjoy occasional treats, but the habit of unbridled intake of nutrient-deficient carbohydrates should be eliminated in the interest of health and performance.
  12. Primal style eating (or eating minimally processed foods) is fractal and intuitive, and when escaping carbohydrate dependency and becoming fat adapted, you don’t have to rely on ingested carbs for energy. Eating patterns can be driven by hunger, pleasure and maximal nutritional benefit.
  13. Escaping sugar dependency and becoming fat adapted gives you a cleaner burning engine, since glucose burning promotes inflammation and increased oxidative stress
  14. Ketones are an internally generated, energy rich by-product of fat metabolism in the liver when blood glucose and insulin levels are low due to carbohydrate restriction in the diet. Ketones are burned efficiently by the brain, heart and skeletal tissue in the same manner as glucose. You do not need to be on a ketogenic diet to upregulate your ability to produce ketones – you can do this via a lower carbohydrate approach.

HOW TO DO THIS: 7 KEY TIPS

  1. Step one: omit sugars, grains, industrial seed oils for 21 days. Step two: emphasis highly nutritious foods such as meat, poultry, vegetables, eggs, nuts, fish, fruits, some full fat dairy, seeds, and kumara/potato.
  2. 100g or less of carbohydrate promotes fat loss, 150g is around maintenance level and over this could promote lifelong weight gain and over 300g could promote disease patterns.
  3. While transitioning to primal there are some struggles initially due to lifelong carbohydrate dependency and the addictive (for some) properties of sugar and excess grains and wheat. Headaches, dehydration, lower blood pressure and ‘dead legs’ are all initial side effects when removing processed food. Trust me – this too will pass.
  4. To minimise side effects, start the transition in a base-training phase of your training where training occurs at an easy pace. The transition phase can take anywhere from 2-12 weeks initially.
  5. Consume salt. Don’t underestimate the importance of this! Lower circulating insulin affects your body’s ability to retain sodium (and other electrolytes) – so we need more, particularly as processed food (of which you are no longer basing your diet around) is where you got around 70% of your sodium from.
  6. You can accelerate the process of fat adaptation by instigating some of the tactics used by athletes who opt to ‘train low’ – i.e. in a low glycogen training state. Some of these are naturally undertaken if you train without eating in the morning, or work out after dinner in the evening and don’t consume anything post-workout. If you’re new to this, have a read through to establish which might suit you best, and start instigating 1-2 x per week. Don’t undertake all of them as this aggressive approach could cause too much additional stress, derailing your plans to become a fat-burning beast.
  7. The FASTER study and Peter Attia, Sami Inkinen suggests any endurance athlete can become fat adapted and deliver performances that may be superior to carb-fuelled efforts all of the way up to anaerobic intensity. This is a new and growing research space, one AUT is testing, among other Universities around the globe.
Strong, lean and awesome at 41y.

Strong, lean and awesome at 41y.

 

PS What the Fat Sports Performance – currently an ebook, about to be published is one I can’t WAIT to read as well – sure to be a goody.

An endurance athlete’s ‘real food’ success story: making it work for you.

I got this email this week from a client that I have worked with since just before mid-year. She is an endurance athlete that came to me as her overall energy levels were low and she was carrying a few extra kilograms that she wasn’t used to.

We chatted through not only nutrition but lifestyle-related changes that she could make to help support her busy lifestyle. This included changes to her diet, additional supplemental support, working on sleep-related behaviours and finding the middle ground between ensuring adequate energy levels and losing body fat to a level that was sustainable and achievable. You can appreciate this is a delicate balance! I discussed with her that when we sorted her energy levels, the body fat loss would take care of itself – she was aware of this and that her energy levels were the priority.

As an endurance athlete she often trained at both ends of the day and came home late, stayed up a little later than she thought she should, and relied quite a bit on carbohydrate-based choices such as bread and cereal to boost her energy levels during the day. While she didn’t recognise it, I immediately flagged this as one of the reasons she was feeling exhausted. She was also hungry a lot, eating at multiple times during the day. This was another indicator that her food choices were not geared towards an optimal balance of good quality carbohydrate, protein and fat. A detailed discussion on her diet proved this to be true.

This client was very motivated to feel better, and took the suggestions that I made and found a way to work them into her lifestyle. We had four sessions together, the last being just before a race that she was doing – the first one for her in a while.

I asked if she minded if I shared her email – she was happy for me to do so.

“Thanks for the item on Thyroid on Fitter Radio this week – it was really helpful. Good to know low thyroid is not something you are necessarily stuck with for life.

Following our catch-up at the end of September I just thought I’d update you with how things have gone since then, and where I have found a really comfortable place with training and nutrition.

Update:

So in summary, I performed well at my last race and was very happy with my placing in my age group. I really noticed that getting extra sleep made a big difference to how I felt, two nights before the race I had 9 hours and felt amazing the next day.

My weight has stabilized at around 53kg so I think this is possibly the happy place for my body, and it’s the same as it was a couple of years ago when I was running at my best.  I feel good at this level and I’ve figured out how to keep it there – for me it’s:

  • at least 7.5 hours sleep;
  • not eating late; and
  • doing some kind of activity in the evening, even if that’s just a walk.

Food wise, what seems to be working and manageable is:

Prep: (crucial to ensuring that I’ve got options available during the week):

  • Bulk making a week’s smoothies at the weekend, then freezing and using during the week
  • Ordering Primal Kitchen for weekday lunches and weekend main meals
  • Making a few wraps at the weekend for weekdays when I do something straight after work. For example, Farrah chia wrap* with Vital Vegetables Slaw, lemon juice, a flavour (Thai spice mix, peanut butter or salsa) + a protein such as smoked salmon or chicken

*yes I know it’s has wheat in it and is a carb but it seems to give me enough energy/and is practical – if I eat fewer carbs than I am I don’t seem to have enough energy.  I have tried other things instead of a wrap like cabbage leaves/sushi sheets/… but they just don’t work as well, they fall apart. The thing that does work is the Vietnamese rice paper wraps but they are very fiddly so I would tend to buy the Farrah wraps instead – very good place in central Wellington to get them! 

Breakfast – usually 5:30-6:30 depending on day

  • Smoothie and a hot drink + a spoon of peanut butter – I usually make the smoothie quite thick and eat it out of a bowl with a spoon!
  • If I’m doing something hard-ish like a swim squad or a run/bike then I have something else too. This tends to be either a sachet of plain oat porridge with the smoothie on top, or 2 hard-boiled eggs with some salt (or on a race day 1-2 x banana depending on length or race).

Mid morning – usually have a coffee with rice milk but don’t need to snack much now. If I do it’s 1-2 Brazil nuts

Weekday lunch – usually eaten around 11am-noon

  • Primal kitchen – 1/2 a warrior size shared with partner + handful baby spinach
  • 2 squares of dark chocolate and maybe a couple of strawberries.
  • Raspberry white tea

Mid afternoon – usually have a Redbush tea with rice milk but don’t need to snack now. If I do it’s a carrot and maybe a few almonds.

Weekday dinner – on days when I do something around 5 or 6pm in the evening, I just eat this around 4pm which seems early but it gives me fuel for the activity then I don’t need to eat a meal later. This way I get a semi-fasted thing happening (as per train-low principles) without it feeling hard. And it means I don’t eat a bunch of rubbish in the afternoon. So it works!

  • Wrap
  • 2 squares of dark chocolate
  • Redbush or green tea

Evening – Usually have a hot drink (not caffeinated), and maybe a swig of wine or my partners beer, but I don’t need to snack as much now – if I do it’s because I’ve just been for a hard-ish training session or MTB ride, and, something like a gold kiwi and few nuts does the trick.

Weekends, similar but we have Primal Kitchen in the evening but I try make sure we eat early, like by 6. For lunch something like sardines on toast if at home with salad, or eggs on toast if we are at a cafe.

Overall

It’s working well and although probably to you getting Primal Kitchen for most of our main meals will probably seem like a bit of a cop out!! But actually takes the stress out of everything – otherwise I would end up doing all of the thinking ahead/planning for both of us on food and basically end up spending more of my free time on it which to me wouldn’t feel fair! (My partner is wonderful but he just isn’t as organised as me and has lean genes and the fastest metabolism on earth so can eat anything. To him, super healthy food isn’t so much of a priority). I think it also works out the same cost or cheaper, definitely frees up some time and makes logistics easier. I’m sure at some point in my life I’ll enjoy doing more food prep and cooking more but this works right now and keeps the balance of effort fair!**

I am planning on giving up triathlon after this summer and just focus on running, mostly trail running and doing other stuff I enjoy for fun.

So, that’s it! Thanks for everything and your podcast, the whole experience of getting nutrition consultation has been a really positive one and the result for me has been to shift a good couple of kilograms and change my mental attitude in a very positive way.  🙂 ”

You can see from the discussion of her food choices, her diet isn’t low carbohydrate per se – though it is definitely LOWER in carbohydrates than it was. There is a lot more protein here than what she was having, and overall the nutrient density has improved.

Overall I think this is such a good ‘real food’ success story and that’s why I asked if I could share it. Does she eat ONLY non-processed food? No – however it’s all about context and finding the middle ground with what can be achieved in the context of the individual’s lifestyle.  That, to me, is success. 🙂

Merry Xmas.

 

**to be clear, I don’t think that getting meals from a place like Primal Kitchen (or ordering through My Food Bag etc) is a cop-out at ALL. I think it’s a smart strategy to help people meet their nutrition goals and not fall back into bad habits that could contribute to poor overall health status. It’s really interesting here that it works out MORE cost effective too. It saves on buying food that they would have to throw out as they haven’t found the time to cook it. It also saves the temptation of just having toast or cereal in the evening, or a sandwich that doesn’t provide enough protein and important nutrients. Primal Kitchen is a great choice.

 

A few quick thoughts on the Ministry of Health Eating and Activity Guidelines for Healthy Adults

After over a year since the Ministry of Health asked for submissions to the draft food guidelines, they have finally announced an update. Undoubtedly they were waiting for the lead taken by the US who are in the process of updating theirs and, looking at ours, it’s a shame that New Zealand didn’t man up and take the lead from Brazil last year, who focused not only on food but non-food related factors related to eating behaviour, such as the eating environment, the social environment and food advertising. Anyway.

As in the first draft, there has been little more than just wordsmithing of the existing guidelines that were last updated in 2003 in this new document, the Eating and Activity Guidelines. While there is a paragraph on the end that recommends choosing ‘whole food’, (which is great, I do really like this), for the most part the guidelines remain largely unchanged from the existing ones and therefore aren’t in line with that recommendation.

While there has been an extended period of time between the original draft and now, and the guidelines say they are based on best available evidence, to my mind this actually is NOT evidence in some areas. As part of the Human Potential Centre we wrote a submission to the Ministry of Health and provided them some of this best available evidence. This hasn’t appeared in the final update. While unsurprising, it is still a bit disappointing.

The full guidelines are here and I just thought I’d give a quick summary of where I feel the Ministry could have improved the guidelines for the health of the population.*

Enjoy a variety of nutritious foods every day including:

  • Grain foods, mostly whole grain and those naturally high in fibre

Pasta and noodles and couscous and cereals aren’t whole grains. They may have been whole grain once (as they are grain products!) But they are FAR from whole grain despite what it says on the packet. Sorry. Regardless of whether they say ‘whole grains’ or not, there are few whole grains in the diet. Barley might be one. As Prof Mann from Otago has said ‘most wholegrains in the food supply aren’t intact and are equivalent to a bag of glucose (read this here for a dietitian’s view on the post – and then check out who his clients are or have been….cough cough).

With this in mind, and with two thirds of New Zealander’s categorised as overweight or obese, a growing number of people being diagnosed with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes (and many more estimated undiagnosed) it is perplexing that there is a focus on foods which are as nutrient devoid as the packaging they come in (i.e. pasta). Not all carbohydrate sources are created equal, and your naturally occurring carbohydrate sources such as potato, kumara, yams and fruit are far more nutritious sources of carbohydrates for people who can tolerate them. It’s not about ‘no carb’ – it’s about quality carbohydrate. The recommendation to include pasta, cous cous, bread and cereals –processed, refined carbohydrate foods – is in contradiction to the awesome recommendation to choose whole foods.

  • Some milk and milk products, mostly low and reduced fat

This is NOT the most up to date research. Many many epidemiological studies support the use of full fat dairy being beneficial for weight management, heart health, gut health in all age groups. Ministry of Health is scared to say ‘blue milk’ as it contains saturated fat (in context of whole food diet in normal amounts, this isn’t an issue.’ MOH should read my blog post on why full fat dairy has important health benefits that can’t be gleaned from low fat. And…. Full fat dairy is far more satiating than low fat. We feel fuller and are able to better manage blood sugar levels and with it mood, concentration and overall energy. We’ve been buying into the low fat message for far too long and it’s about time we kicked that to the curb.

  • Some legumes*, nuts, seeds, fish and other seafood, eggs, poultry (eg, chicken) and/or red meat with the fat removed (Eat less than 500 grams of cooked red meat a week.)

A large proportion of New Zealanders are both iron and zinc deficient and red meat is the richest source of these nutrients, along with fat soluble vitamins and antioxidants such as Co-Q10 which play important roles in the health of our cardiovascular, digestive and musculoskeletal systems. Most dietary iron comes from breads and cereals which contain nutrients which bind iron and prevent absorption. There has been the recent IARC report suggesting that red meat is a carcinogen, and while it’s important that red meat intake is moderated to a palm size portion as part of a meal, it’s good to be aware of the critiques around the red meat issue (such as this and this). I do wonder, though, if there are differing health effects in populations eating red meat in places such as New Zealand, where our beef and cattle industry (predominantly grass fed, no antibiotics or hormones) is quite different from the hormone, grain-fed, antibiotic administered environment of that in the US.

In addition – as you know, it’s the processed meat that we need to be more mindful of. Luncheon and saveloys and chargrilled (burnt to a crisp) sausages on the BBQ should be avoided.

  • Choose and/or prepare foods and drinks with unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats (SAFA).

We’ve been over this a LOT I know – check this out and this out. Abnormal amounts of anything is going to tip the balance in the wrong direction health wise, especially in the context of a diet that is also high in refined carbohydrate. It can also be problematic for people consuming large amounts in the context of a real food, low carbohydrate diet actually. So it is individual. However there is a difference between consuming ridiculously large amounts (i.e. a bulletproof coffee for breakfast alongside bacon and eggs fried in butter) and encouraging people to choose butter (a minimally processed food) instead of margarine or other industrial seed oil spreads (highly processed) to sauté their green beans in.

In addition, while the guidelines say that it’s beneficial for heart health to replace saturated fat with polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat, I’ve asked some smart people about this and replacing SAFA (or any fat) in the diet with PUFA may only beneficial when the diet is deficient in nutrients such as antioxidants provided by the seed oil, or if the diet is deficient in PUFA (never really seen in New Zealand. Further, the real benefit comes from long chain omega 3 fatty acids (from fish for example) rather than seed oils, which are certainly beneficial for health, including heart, brain and vascular health.

So… while it’s great there is the inclusion of the paragraph that encourages the consumption of real food that is minimally processed (and on that most people are in agreeance), the continual promotion of grain-based foods, low fat dairy and plant-based polyunsaturated fats such as seed oils goes against this recommendation. I don’t know if this paragraph is merely a nod to the growing awareness the consumer is having with regards to their food (rather than a genuine recommendation) or a lack of understanding of what ‘minimally processed’ means. It feels like they have their feet in both camps, but it could only serve to confuse people who are navigating an already confused food environment.

*someone else much smarter and more articulate with more time could probably do a more indepth review.

A real food success story.

I love a good Real Food success story – and Julie has a great one. She has happily let me post it here. Over to you, Julie.

My name is Julie, I’m a 50 year old nurse, and Neale and I are coming up to our thirtieth wedding anniversary this year. I have four children and three grandchildren. While not being excessively overweight in my teens, I lived in a dieting environment with a mother always going on a diet “on Monday”. Food was always on my mind, the more I ate the more I seemed to want to eat. Four children and seesaw weight loss and gain followed. In 2002 I was heaviest I had been and a friend introduced me to the high protein low carb eating style and the rationale behind it.

The realisation that I had a high insulin response to carbs was liberating. I had always been constantly puzzled about the fact that no matter how much cereal and fruit and trim milk I ate for breakfast, by mid-morning I was ravenous, foggy headed and wanting to have a sleep. No one else seemed to feel like that and I concluded I was an undisciplined pig. If I was trying to lose weight and went to bed starving, that was a triumph. But the weight went back on – that old familiar story. So I read “The Protein Power Plan” and tried that for about a week and went through carb withdrawal complete with the headaches, moodiness and brain fog. I took that book back and she gave me “Enter the Zone” and this is when the light switch really went on and the liberation of knowing my response to carbs was not my fault allowed me to gain some control.

I counted blocks to the gram, lost weight, felt amazing and thought I could do this forever. And I did always continue to try and follow the very sound principles of eating in a balance of fats, carbs and protein to manage my hunger. But I was still eating grains (limited – low carb 2 slices a day with grilled cheese on top) and making choices for my blocks that were still processed and simply started eating too much always thinking “I’ll start again tomorrow” and lo and behold, there I was at the start of 2014 the heaviest I had ever been – again. A friend came to visit on January 2nd 2014. He is an amazing weight lifter and heavily muscled but wanted to lose some weight and he had read about paleo and was following the principles fairly strictly and lost weight fairly quickly. I had heard the paleo term round and about and admit I am guilty of dismissing things I don’t know enough about until it is thrust in my face, so had thought it was just a fad. I thought I had the tools with “the Zone”, I just needed to get my head back around it.

Neale was keen to lose weight as well so the next day we went to the butcher and vegetable shop and stocked up. I wasn’t prepared to give up dairy (again, I thought I knew better and I actually do tolerate dairy just fine, and don’t have as much as I thought I would want) but never ate bread again from that day – I knew it wasn’t my friend, I couldn’t afford to let it in. Do I want it now? Not a bit. Freedom. And I read. I read everything I could; Robb Wolf, Chris Kresser (I find his book is realistic and possible), Melissa and Dallas Hartwig’s “It Starts with Food” and others. I follow Facebook pages and blogs, and found Mikki in the “North and South” magazine at about that time and started following her as well. Mikki keeps it real too which made me realise this is doable. Forever. I still read and search for anything new, because knowing why I am making these changes makes it easier. But I must stress, it just hasn’t been that hard. The weight loss of 30 kilos is a bonus, but was certainly my main motivation in the beginning was because I wanted to audition for “Mamma Mia!”, the stage show. While I was never going to look amazing in lycra, I wanted to look as good as I could!

What do I eat? When I started I ate all the things “allowed” and quite a lot of it so after the initial loss of 7 kg, I stalled. I continued to read and found intermittent fasting. I would skip breakfast – just coffee with a bit of cream – and have around a 16 hour fast overnight. I was surprised at how well I functioned on two meals and consequently eating less (but never starving), the weight started to drop. Meals with adequate protein (palm of my hand) and lots of vege, never skimping on fat (butter, coconut oil, olive oil, avocado) kept me going in peak form. Two or three days a week I would add breakfast. My crockpot is my best friend, I make tons of bone broth which we drink or turn into soup in the crockpot again – kale or other greens, carrot, some kumara or pumpkin, swede (Southland swede rocks!), leeks, celery, whatever is available. Make enough for the week and lunches are never an issue. I have Melissa Joulwan’s “Well Fed” books and prepare as much for the week in one go as I can. I go to the farmers market and prepare vege, chopped, stir fried or mashed. I brown mince in a pan and use that to add protein to my soup. I keep boiled eggs in the fridge. Being prepared is the key and food is simple, often a one pan wonder, but always tasty because you cook in fat and add salt because there is no added salt in unprocessed food. When I cook, I cook plenty so there is always leftovers. I pin on Pinterest. I have a lot of recipes for treats, but in reality I hardly ever make them, because I just don’t yearn for them. But ideas are good. I do make treats for my grandchildren, and feed them a very clean diet. They love my home-made chicken nuggets from The Ancestral Table, and my 18 month grandson loves porridge made with banana, coconut milk, eggs and ground flaxseed. I make coconut flour waffles for waffle toast which gives them extra protein with eggs and added cottage cheese, and coconut flour mini donuts. I buy cheap apples at the market to make apple sauce for sweetening. It’s great to see Nadia Lim’s recipes guiding us to this way of eating as well.

Healing my gut has been important, I make water kefir and of course the bone broth helps. I sleep like a log, I take a magnesium supplement every night, my blood pressure is plum normal and I’m off meds – whilst it was never normal even on meds. I have stopped taking anti depressants, I feel calm and even in my mood. I guess my diet is fairly low carb because it’s hard to eat too many carbs when your main source is vegetables. I eat 1-2 pieces of fruit daily and some starchy vege like kumara. When I first started the Zone, I understood that it worked for me but I was constantly annoyed ( to say the least) that other people could eat bread and a “normal” diet without being starving all the time and not putting on weight. I just don’t feel like that now. I don’t feel cheated, or that I am missing out on anything. Exercise is something I haven’t done with much regularity and that’s just a mental block of mine which I will conquer next.

People ask me what I’ve done. I say I eat clean, I don’t love the paleo label, but at the end of the day if they want to make changes they will listen, and they will want to learn for themselves. A year may seem a long time but the time goes by anyway, so make it count now, not next year. If you want to see obstacles, you will. If you want to make a change to how you feel and ultimately look, you can. And the obstacles become challenges and then you rise to those challenges and you are there, and you will want to learn as much as you can. I eat what I feel like eating now and I only feel like whole, natural, unprocessed food, and continue to lose about a kilo a month. I have a pair of jeans I want to fit…..but the journey is as rewarding as the goal.

julie

Julie’s transformation

Low carbohydrate diets for health and performance

AUT University’s Human Potential Centre has been commissioned by New Zealand’s Register of Exercise Professionals (REPs) to write research reviews around current exercise and health-related topics that are relevant to the fitness industry. I recently wrote this review of the efficacy of low carbohydrate diets for health and performance. It is definitely longer than my usual posts, so grab a sparkling water and settle in ;). It is appropriate for personal trainers to give guidelines that optimise diet to aid the client’s body composition, health, and performance goals, and then refer clients to a nutritionist or dietitian for a more individualised plan. So, an understanding of the current evidence base on the efficacy of low carbohydrate diets for fat loss and metabolic health outcomes is important hence this review provides a brief summary of current research and some practical tips. In research, a low carbohydrate diet is defined as one that contributes less than 26% of dietary energy (kilojoules) from carbohydrate foods. There is a wide variation in the absolute grams of carbohydrate per day between individuals that would fall into this category. A person who eats 2000 Calories per day would consume less than approximately 120g of carbohydrate, whereas for someone with an intake closer to 2800 Calories per day, less than 170g of carbohydrate would be considered the threshold for ‘low carbohydrate’. As a general rule though, when using absolute amounts, less than 150g of carbohydrate per day is generally considered a low carbohydrate diet – this is compared to the mean intakes of approximately 207g (females) and 278g (males) per day currently consumed in New Zealand. Clearly, low carbohydrate diets are nothing new, with the Letter of Corpulence published in 1863 that instructed readers on the dietary approach that successfully shed weight. The restriction of bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer and potatoes were hallmark features of this plan and provided the foundation for subsequent carbohydrate restricted approaches. In the 1970s the low carbohydrate diet approach was popularised by Dr Robert Atkins and the Atkins Diet Revolution. While at the time this was criticised due to the lack of research around its long term safety (and it was directly opposed to the dietary guidelines at the time), it was the start of the modern era of low carbohydrate diets that included the Scarsdale Diet, Protein Power, South Beach along with updated versions of the Atkins Diet, the latest (A New Atkins for a New You) being released in 2012. A lack of understanding of these diets has led many health professionals to dismiss them as quackery due to a perceived lack of fibre, vitamins and minerals, despite the relative success that some people experience when following a well formulated low carbohydrate diet. The percentage calories coming from fat in a low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet  is generally around 50-60% depending on individual variation. This naturally increases the amount of fat coming from both animal and plant sources. A major argument used by opponents to the LCHF dietary approach is that it promotes unnaturally high levels of saturated fat in the diet and, as saturated fat increases cholesterol in the body, this will clog arteries and lead to cardiovascular disease. There are a number of issues that need to be addressed here. Firstly, dietary fats don’t exist in nature in isolation, therefore any food that has a high percentage of calories coming from fat will supply the diet with a range of fatty acids and not one type of fat exclusively. For example, an avocado is predominantly monounsaturated fat but contains not insignificant amounts of both polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat. A well formulated LCHF diet will certainly increase levels of saturated fat in the diet, but will also increase levels of all types of fat. A major premise of the LCHF plan is not to eat unnaturally large amounts of fat from any one source. Instead it is to include more of the fat naturally occurring in minimally processed foods (such as some dairy products, plants and animal protein). It is certainly true that an increase in saturated fat leads to an increase in total cholesterol for some people depending on dietary context; however the majority of people see an improvement in their overall lipid profile with the appropriate reduction in carbohydrate as mentioned above. The role of saturated fat in the development of cardiovascular disease is widely disputed in the scientific literature, and while an increase in saturated fat levels in the blood can lead to an increase in atherosclerosis, these levels are increased with a higher intake of refined carbohydrate and not a diet that is high in saturated fats. Further, while the original hypothesis that saturated fat increased cholesterol levels which increases heart disease has been what public health nutrition guidelines have been built around, this has simply not borne out in any randomised controlled trials designed to test this hypothesis. In fact, when comparing the disease outcomes associated with different nutrients, the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in the US associated with the highest sugar intakes in the USA is 2.75, and in high GI refined carbohydrates it is 1.98, meaning that women with a high consumption of these foods have almost double the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease. The association between the highest saturated fat intakes and heart disease incidence was 1.00, or no association at all. Further, dairy fat – the most saturated of all fats – confers health benefits over and above low fat dairy products due to the type of fatty acids present. Research shows a protective effect with regards to diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, and contribution to obesity. The premise of a low carbohydrate diet for weight loss is built not on the ‘energy in, energy out’ model of weight loss, but the metabolic fate of carbohydrates in the body. While gram for gram, carbohydrate has less than half the number of calories as fat, it triggers hormonal effects which can lead to fat storage. When carbohydrates are ingested, they are digested and broken down into glucose and delivered into the bloodstream, resulting in the release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin is responsible for disposal of glucose into the cells thus returning the blood stream back to its homeostatic level of glucose (of between 4 mmol/L to 8 mmol/L). Insulin also stimulates the production of glycogen in the liver, and when the liver is saturated with glycogen, the glucose is synthesised into fatty acids to travel in lipoproteins into the bloodstream. The glucose that is transported into the fat cells is synthesised into glycerol and used to create triglycerides. For these reasons, insulin is considered to be a major player in fat storage, and carbohydrate is the macronutrient which has a profound effect on insulin secretion. Protein on the other hand, has a minimal effect on insulin secretion (with the exception of whey protein) and fat does not stimulate insulin release. (For more information, go here). In terms of food, our ability to burn fat if we consume a can of soft drink is compromised compared to consuming two eggs (predominantly fat and protein). This is not to suggest that calories don’t matter, as a calorie deficit still needs to occur for fat loss to be achieved. However, our ability to burn calories stored as fat is far greater when carbohydrate intake is low (as addressed below). The research clearly shows that a greater reduction in weight is achieved when following a LCHF diet compared to conventional dietary advice promoting a low fat, calorie-restricted approach. Researchers have studied LCHF diets in both calorie-restricted and ad-libitum conditions (where participants could eat as much food as they like), and weight loss was greater in the LCHF group. When it came to dietary adherence, as measured by trial completion, low carbohydrate diets achieved better adherence than low fat (i.e., 79.5% vs. 77.7%, respectively). While the difference is marginal, it still indicates from these studies that LCHF diets are at the very least not harder to stick to than other diets. A possible reason for this might be that these diets appear to reduce hunger and participants are permitted to eat until satiated. While people argue that diets high in both fat OR sugar will result in increased energy intake and weight gain, the results of the above studies illustrate the opposite. A low carbohydrate diet may normalise energy intake due to the higher satiety of fat, and this isn’t typically seen in a higher carbohydrate, lower fat approach. In relation to health outcomes, the LCHF diets outperform standard practice guidelines when it comes to lipids, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and have similar beneficial outcomes with glycaemic control and blood pressure. There appear to be no serious adverse effects arising from either of the dietary protocols, thereby assuring safety from both. Importantly, in the studies where abdominal fat was measured (which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease), LCHF groups have a clear advantage over low fat diets. A LCHF diet has its benefits for athletes, and utilising fat as a fuel source is advantageous from an endurance sport perspective where performance can be limited by the amount of carbohydrate able to be ingested throughout events greater than 2+ hours. The goal of becoming efficient at burning fat as a fuel source is to enable the athlete to become metabolically flexible (i.e. to be able to burn either fat or carbohydrate) during both training and racing as the intensity of the effort requires it. An athlete who has a high carbohydrate diet is less able to tap into fat stores if their body hasn’t had a chance to adapt to a lower carbohydrate diet, and upregulating the fatty acid pathways in the body helps delay the use of stored glycogen which is beneficial for endurance events. Further, the ability to utilise fat as a fuel source allows for improvements in body composition as less exogenous fuel sources need to be ingested. This also helps reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal issues experienced by many endurance athletes in both training and racing who cannot take in enough carbohydrate to fuel the demands. While it is argued that a low carbohydrate approach to diet is detrimental to an athlete’s performance, when timing carbohydrate intake to meet recovery needs, and when given adequate time for the energy system to change from burning predominantly carbohydrate to burning predominantly fat, most athletes benefit from a LCHF diet. The length of time to adapt is individual, however, and anecdotal reports suggest it can take anywhere from 4-12 weeks in the first instance. Therefore changes to a diet should take place during off season or when an athlete is building base endurance for their event, and not in a period of high intensity training. While the application of an LCHF diet is obvious for an endurance athlete, a lower carbohydrate, higher fat diet may be beneficial for other athletes participating in shorter events of higher intensity or team sport athletes. The timing of carbohydrate intake to fuel glycolytic activity and maximise recovery needs to be addressed, and working with a sports nutritionist or dietitian is required for more specialised advice. One of the main criticisms of a low carbohydrate approach is that carbohydrate is an essential nutrient and cutting this out leads to a reduction in optimal functioning. A nutrient is defined as essential when we can’t produce it in our body and therefore it must be supplied by our diet. As we have a limited storage capacity for carbohydrate (approximately 400-500g depending on muscle mass), this has led to the misconception that we require daily replenishment. Unlike fat and protein, however, our body is very adept at producing glucose through a process known as gluconeogenesis; the production of glucose from both fats and amino acids. We produce roughly 120-140g of glucose per day independent of food intake. A second criticism of a LCHF diet is that the exclusion of food groups (specifically whole grain cereals) leads to a deficit in nutrients. However, a well formulated low carbohydrate diet can be far more efficacious at supplying all nutrients when compared to conventional weight loss dietary advice which is based on providing a low fat diet that is rich in whole grains. In actual fact, very little food sources contain the whole grains that confer actual health benefits and in New Zealand true wholegrains such as pearl barley, brown rice, and pumpernickel bread are not common items of our dietary intake. Most wholegrain breads are made with white flour and other refined additives (they are in fact highly processed foods). The grinding of wholegrains to make flour produces a high-GI carbohydrate. The consumers most convenient guide to what is wholegrain and what is not comes from packaging claims which are more or less misleading. Furthermore, attempts to comply with this recommendation in institutional kitchens often results in the addition of bran to refined grains. A recent meta-analysis has concluded that the health benefits of a diet high in wholegrains could be overstated, and the suggested benefits observed in epidemiological studies are not supported by the clinical trials. In addition, there is increasing prevalence of maladaptive immune responses to proteins of various grains and legumes in a significant proportion of the population. The rate of coeliac disease, while acknowledged as a small population prevalence, is highest in the cultures that eat the largest proportion of diet as wheat. The increasing recognition of sub-optimal health related to non-coeliac gluten sensitivity – including allergies, headaches, gastro-intestinal problems and fatigue – suggest that reducing wheat-based carbohydrate in the diet for many could be beneficial. Phytic acid, which is found in high levels in unrefined grains, binds to minerals, rendering them insoluble, and is linked to deficiencies of iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium. The third major criticism of a LCHF diet is that it leads to ketosis which is a dangerous metabolic state to be in. We are able to burn both glucose and ketones as a fuel source, however given the modern diet, most people preferentially burn glucose. Nutritional ketosis is a state whereby the body burns ketones as opposed to glucose as a fuel source. Ketones are produced from the breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids, of which there are three types: acetone, acetate and betahydroxybutyrate (BOHB). This survival mechanism likely provided humans with a metabolic advantage in prehistoric times when food was scarce and we went for a period of time without fuel. The limited storage capacity for carbohydrate requires an alternative fuel source for the brain (first and foremost) and the ketone bodies produced through ketosis provides these. Nutritional ketosis is when ketone (BOHB) production measured through the blood is around above 0.5mmol/L, with the ideal spot (to confer mental acuity benefits) said to be between 1-3 mmol/L. This state of nutritional ketosis is confused with diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious health condition due to uncontrolled ketone build up in the blood. This comes from the inability to take glucose into the cells in people who aren’t able to produce insulin (typically people with type 1 diabetes). The body recognises this as a fasting state and effectively starts to produce ketones for an alternative fuel source, however there is no ability to clear either ketones or glucose without the provision of insulin and instead the rapid rise in ketones (to levels above 10 mmol/L) can lead to serious metabolic conditions. This is as a result of a low pH level of the blood that can result in nausea, vomiting and unconsciousness. This state is, however, impossible for anyone who can produce insulin as the body has a feedback loop which enables the clearance of glucose and ketones from the bloodstream. Importantly, the level of carbohydrate in the diet required to achieve ketosis is less than 50g per day and, for many, closer to 30g per day. Protein levels also have to be closely monitored due to gluconeogenesis. So, while a low carbohydrate diet can lead to ketosis, this isn’t an inevitable part of embarking on a low carbohydrate diet, and nor is it a requirement for being able to use fat as a primary fuel source. There are many pathways in the body that allow us to use fat as an energy substrate. This includes upregulating lipolysis (the breakdown of fat stores into fatty acids and triglycerides to be used by the muscle as energy); the upregulation of beta oxidation which increases the conversation of fatty acids to acetyl coA (the precursor for the Krebs cycles to produce ATP) and the increase in gluconeogenesis (the conversion of protein and fat to glucose) are all pathways that can aid in fat burning that don’t require a ketogenic diet and instead can be enhanced through following a well formulated LCHF diet. Finally, people mistakenly assume that a low carbohydrate diet must be high in protein and that this is both expensive and unsafe. As mentioned above, a well formulated LCHF diet contains a moderate amount of protein, with the remaining calories coming from fat. In the literature the percentage energy coming from protein is typically in line with standard recommendations for protein intake (between 15-25%). It is also worth mentioning that a higher protein intake is not associated with adverse health outcomes in people who are healthy; those with impairments to their kidneys do need to monitor protein consumption as the kidneys are the organ responsible for processing protein load in the body. For most people this is not a concern. In summary, while there certainly isn’t one diet to suit every individual, a well formulated LCHF dietary approach is beneficial for metabolic, health and sports related outcomes. When designed to optimise nutrient quality, the similarities between this and a ‘paleo’, ‘whole food’ or ‘clean eating’ approach far outweigh the differences. Practical tips:

  • A low carbohydrate, high fat diet (LCHF) is one which the calories from carbohydrate are approximately 25% or less in the dietary intake, and typically below 150g per day in absolute amounts.
  • The premise of a well formulated LCHF diet is one which is based around food quality and consuming food as close to its natural form as possible.
  • Build meals around an abundance of non-starchy vegetables of all colours.
  • The carbohydrate foods consumed on a well-formulated LCHF diet come a small amount of starchy vegetables and legumes, low sugar fruit and full fat dairy products.
  • Incorporate moderate amounts of animal protein, fish and eggs for quality protein sources in a meal.
  • Fats such as butter, coconut oil, lard and olive oil are best to cook with, and other nut oils can be used as dressing for salads. Include avocado, raw nuts and seeds as high fat options in meals and snacks.
  • Processed or highly refined foods, oils and margarines or spreads are best avoided.
  • Incorporating fat and protein in every meal or snack will help minimise blood sugar swings and improve glycaemic control across the day.

Ancestral Health Symposium 2014: Part 1

So I’m writing this from San Francisco. Berkley to be exact. It is 5.24pm and Caryn and I have made it back to our dorm rooms at the end of the Ancestral Health Symposium and taking some down time before heading out to dinner with the rest of the NZ contingent to have a debrief over dinner and a well deserved glass of wine. I had prepared two blog posts actually – to put up on line that were somewhat related to the AHS (as in, they are a summary of an excellent talk given by Peter Attia on cholesterol that he gave at the AHS in 2012). However, given I have half an hour in between now and dinner I thought I would quickly jot down some highlights of the trip so far. As you know, I’m neither systematic nor logical in how I collect my thoughts, and this blog post will reflect that. These are merely some of the many things that have piqued my interest.

Some key take home points from three of the first speakers on Day one of the conference:

Dan Pardi – creator of Dan’s Plan talked about the integration of technology to help people stay motivated in their health and wellbeing goals. Now, this concept is nothing new – anyone with a pedometer or fitbit (or anyone that tracks…anything) will be familiar with these tools – however, for some, the idea that we can use technology as a way to advance health through an evolutionary health model seems somewhat contrary to the goal of getting back to basics that many advocate. this talk was a good reminder that ancestral health is not about trying to emulate the environment of our ancestors and eschewing technology – it’s about finding ways of enabling us to meet these health goals.

Grace Liu, a researcher in the gut health area talked about how our changing environment has affected the diversity of the bacteria in our gut and how this has impacted on health.  Some challenges included:

  • the introduction of agriculture;
  • our decreased exposure to mud and manure;
  • electricity and the invention of refrigeration eliminating the need to ferment our food in order to preserve it;
  • using antibiotics to to fatten livestock; and for infants
  • being born by caesarean and the increasing use of formula all presenting challenges for the growth of that bacteria.

Grace’s recommendations for people who want to help preserve gut health by increasing the diversity of the bacteria were to:

  1. Include fermented foods
  2. Include resistant starch (a type of starch that is used as a fuel for the bacteria in our gut, and found either in strains of fibre or particular foods such as potatoes and unripe bananas)
  3. Exercise
  4. Lifestyle (manage stress, make time for meditation, minimise environmental toxins in all forms)

Denise Minger, known predominantly for her critique of the China Study and author of Death by Food Pyramid (a great read of the history of the dietary guidelines) gave a somewhat surprising talk regarding the plant based versus a carnivore diet for overall health outcomes. Most people would have expected the obvious outcome that anyone improving their diet will experience health benefits because the baseline diet was so bad. Not so. In fact, what Denise found was the the very antithesis of the paleo approach to diet was very successful at improving health outcomes for people that were long lasting and sustainable. She first investigated Walter Kempner’s work on the Rice Diet. A typical day’s intake looking something like this:
Breakfast: 1 c brown rice, 1 small glass of orange juice, 2 figs and unsweetened coffee
Lunch: 1c brown rice, 1 c stewed tomatoes, raw carrots and 1 glass skimmed milk
Dinner: 1.5 c Russian Pilaf, 1 bowl mixed carrots, cabbage, cucumber, ½ c fresh fruit cocktail

Based on 2400 Cal per day, 350g rice, unlimited juice and fruit and totaling between 100-400g/d of sugar, this diet was successful in reversing kidney disease and enabling people to regenerate insulin production. An analysis of the Pritikin diet illustrated that it was useful in reducing tissue attoxia (lack of oxygen in the tissue) and finally Esselstyn, famous for the diet that helped reverse heart disease in a small group of patients that had suffered a coronary event, has very recently published a trial that found heart disease symptoms reversed in 198 patients following the diet for three years. I’ve tried to find the corresponding research but have only found this white paper. Further, though one may argue that no one could stay on these diet plans for the rest of their life (and, indeed, Kempner – it was revealed – used to whip his clients if they fell off the diet bandwagon) both the Esselstyn and the Kempner diet’s appear to enable people to reverse their health issues for the long term – even when returning to a more sustainable diet. Denise points out that the health benefits seen on a very low fat diet (both of these were 10% of their calories coming from fat) are very much the same as those on a very high fat diet (80% fat) and that low fat studies (at around 30%) aren’t low fat enough to show the actual health benefits. While this is all very well and good – what is the point of following such an extreme diet approach if it isn’t something that can be followed in the long term? Or even in the short term? I don’t know if the corporal punishment approach would go down that well with my clients. But, then, I’ve not tried it. At any rate, this certainly provided food for thought – even if that food is rather bland and wholly unsatisfying.

And – dinner time. Short and sweet (well, shorter by about 200 words), you can see from the little I’ve provided you with, that there is undoubtedly more to follow to debrief you on the latest research going on in the ancestral health field. Not only that, but I will have to post a blog about the food experience to date on the trip also as Caryn and I make our way from San Fran to LA. That in itself is as interesting as the conference for the likes of Caryn and I.

A foodie's delight. Not necessarily that new. Or that different, but just... in a different location. Though have to say, the fruit is massive here.

A foodie’s delight. Not necessarily that new. Or that different, but just… in a different location. Though have to say, the fruit is massive here.

So… have you gone all keto?

Yes. But unlike my decision to ‘go paleo’ this was a predetermined, calculated, conscious decision and not ‘by default’, which is how my whole food philosophy came about. And that’s largely because it would be very difficult to just ‘go keto’ without some predetermined, calculated, conscious decision making occurring. Although, with the wisdom that is obviously gained from now 9 days of carbohydrate and protein restriction, and the consumption of vastly increased grams of fat I am pretty sure a lot of people out there who believe they are ketogenic might not be – if the websites devoted to keto foods and recipes are anything to go by. How on earth would they be in ketosis with protein portions that large??

Now why would I bother jumping on the keto bandwagon? A few reasons. A lot of people I know have tried it and I’ve reached a point where I’m curious enough to see if I had the discipline to follow such a strict dietary regime (regime is a rather harsh word, but I feel it’s applicable for this diet). Whilst some people observe what I eat and exclaim how ‘disciplined’ I am (like it’s a virtue), I love what I eat and eat what I want – eating a real food diet isn’t about discipline, it’s about pleasure. The strict limits on not only carbohydrate but protein requires discipline largely reserved for the very analytical and uber intelligent (i.e. Peter Attia over at Eating Academy).

The second reason is self experimentation – a far cry from the days I mocked people for using the term n=1, I now wanted to experience, document and reflect on how it feels to undertake a ketogenic diet. A great way to learn and understand anything is to experience it. My weight and body image issues growing up, for example, have provided me with better insight into the challenges faced by clients who battle with similar problems, despite the fact that, physically, we may look very different. As a number of my clients now have heard of a ketogenic diet and just want to try it, or have legitimate health reasons that warrant a ketogenic approach as a tool to improve metabolic health markers, then to be able to speak from experience is obviously advantageous.

The final reason is because Caryn gave it a go. And therefore, out of those left in our research team at Human Potential Centre who had yet to follow a ketogenic diet, I was the only person left who had yet to try it. Other than Scott. And as he is still drinking energy drinks (albeit he’s switched to the sugar free variety, and swigs water after having it to protect his teeth), it’s fair to say our respective diets are poles apart at this point. However he has recently jumped on the Twitter bandwagon so I’m sure it won’t be too long before he’s swigging bottles of MCT oil and professing the benefits of butter like it’s nobody’s business. However, I am a nutritionist and, as the last one standing I felt not a small amount of FOMO by having not at least tried it. I’m actually in the best position out of my colleagues – as I can learn from their mistakes. Like I did at St Johns. As a cadet in my younger years we had regional competitions that required assessing a medical emergency and stitching or bandaging people up with the one who illustrated the most knowledge walking away with the trophy. As my last name is Williden I was usually last to front up, and my St John’s group would filter information to me so, by the time it was my turn, I was armed with all necessary information to go into the medical situation and assess, inform, and bandage with skills that would make me an indispensable member of McDreamy’s team. This ketogenic diet experiment is not dissimilar, minus the trophy and the badge to stitch on my jersey.

So Day 9… A short time, sure. But I’ve learned a few things already.

  1. It’s hard to stick to the protein limit. Really hard. I got an inkling of that when I read Tim Noakes’ Real Meal Revolution recommendation of keeping animal protein to 80g per meal absolute amounts. But who also knew vegetables contained so much protein?
  2. That it is hard to get the amount of fat necessary for ketosis and overeat. My food volume has dramatically reduced. Obviously, though, if you do eat more fat than you need, this will be reflected in weight gain/gastrointestinal problems etc over the long term.
  3. That I’d wildly underestimated the amount of peanut/almond/coconut butter I actually ate in normal life (like somehow the Gilmours 3kg bags of nuts just disappeared of their own accord). I’ve never tracked my food to this extent (using Easy Diet Diary app for iPhone) and it is a real eye opener.
  4. That not all food apps are created equal. For example, Fitday lists broccoli has having almost as much carbohydrate as pumpkin. It doesn’t.
  5. That for some people to get into ketosis, 50g of carbohydrate (CHO) might be too high, and closer to 30g is better. Is this a female thing? Maybe. This is clearly insight from Caryn who passed this on. While the academic literature often places limits of 20-30g CHO/day,  there are also studies that refer to a low carbohydrate, high protein diet as ‘ketogenic.’ Confusion is clearly not limited to the bloggersphere.
  6. There is a lot of misinformation on the Internet about ketogenic diets. But there are some very smart people writing about this – way smarter and knowledgeable than I am.
  7. People are unnecessarily verbose in recipes and post too many ‘stages’ pictures.
  8. That, despite being my dislike of Thai food and Thai restaurants, I really like my own Thai red curry coconut chicken. (I must be the only person who doesn’t like Thai food. I know. Is it the cheesy American cover songs and proliferation of sweet chilli sauce? Maybe).
  9. That making pastry is way easier than I ever realized.
  10. That if you decide to make pastry to turn that chicken curry into a pie, you should probably check that you own a rolling pin (or a good substitute) first
  11. That I make really good rhubarb crumble and chicken curry pie. These and other recipes are over on my Facebook nutrition page – definitely check them out.

Other thoughts:

  1. Training wise – I’ve felt great. Up until Friday and then it felt like I’d been turned upside down and emptied out. Hardest. Run. Ever. Barely breaking 5.30 k’s (actually that’s an estimate – thankfully Nicky’s evil Garmin wasn’t working and I was too scared to wear mine). Friday and Saturday were complete write offs but today’s run – storming. Seriously. Even after doing weights yesterday I woke up feeling better than I have in a long time.
  2. During normal day: I’ve felt flat. A bit sick on some days too – and particularly on the days when I missed having a coffee with cream, or something similar, which reduces amount of fat I start the day with. But, again, today I feel back to being awesome.
  3. Twice during the week I woke up and couldn’t get back to sleep for an hour. Unusual for me, though not unheard of. Last night I slept right through. This may be due to the diet, might have nothing to do with it.
  4. I miss fruit. And dates. And wine (for now – I’m abstaining for now, given that alcohol is preferentially metabolized in the body – which would largely offset my efforts to turn fat into the go-to fuel tank).
  5. While I, like many people, have my go-to foods, nine days into this and I’ve needed a bit of variety to keep me focused. I typically eat a TON of vegetables, and would feel largely dissatisfied to sit down to a third of that with extra dressing added as a fat source.
  6. It’s a shame that I’m making all these awesome meals and I have yet to meet my future husband. He is seriously missing out on some good eats.

I know. I’m late to the party on this. Just like the paleo/real food/whole food movement, I’m pontificating on something that some of you reading this would have read about, adopted, wrote about, reflected on and then moved on five years ago. If this is you, and you have some wise words then please share! This is a learning curve for me (and clients) so the more I know the better.

So I’m hoping for that ‘keto’ clarity, that ethereal experience people talk about, and that today’s run was indicative of the amazing training that I will experience as I undergo this keto experiment. (It goes without saying that this will of course turn me into an amazing athlete lol) I’m also hoping that my experience will add to the information out there that seems, for the most part, from the male experience. There are a few women writing about it, but it is largely a male dominated space. I will keep you updated, both here and on my Facebook page. Right. Off to make keto hot cross buns. Because nothing says Easter like almond flour buns dressed with a white cross.