Diet and body composition: 11 key take home points

The International Society of Sports Nutrition just released a position stand that reviewed the literature available regarding diet and body composition. You can read it here.  For those who want it broken down into more simple terms, I’ve distilled it somewhat into 11 key take home points. While much of this draws on literature from strength and power athletes, it is definitely applicable to the general audience too, given that resistance-based training is one of the best things you can do to support your health and body composition goals.

  1. There is a vast multitude of diets and within these, several subtypes of diet. Low fat, low carb, higher protein, Mediterranean, low calorie… and these will all work work to reduce body fat given the right conditions. As a practitioner, we need to be familiar of the evidence supporting each diet type to make informed recommendations to the people we interact with, both at an individual and population level. As someone who is interested in losing body fat, know that no ONE diet is going to suit everyone, and if you’re trying to follow something because your mate is too, but you’re not seeing the results, then potentially it’s not the right plan for you. Seems simple when I write it down – but I think important to remind you.
  2. All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. It’s good to bear in mind the limitations of using just scales as the only indicator, as this doesn’t account for fat mass loss. I’ve had numerous clients basically freak out that they have gained a kilogram overnight because they’ve eaten something high in carbs (causing your body to hold water) or they have done a hard training session (inflamed tissue). It is impossible to gain kilo of fat over a week, let alone a night, but the obsession with scales can make even the most rational person a little … less rational. Thus, if you use the scales, then think about how this makes you feel. And do it at the same time each week, on waking, after you go to the bathroom – etc. IE try to make it consistent. Ditto re: skinfolds – choose a practitioner who is skilled and stick to the same person so any errors are at least consistent errors.
  3. While it’s not about ‘calories in, calories out’, as that is far too simplistic, we do need to create a deficit in calories to drop body fat. Don’t freak out by the next bit of (evidence-backed, science-informed) information: The more fat you’ve got stored, the quicker you can lose this body fat without losing too much muscle mass by creating a large calorie deficit. The leaner an individual is, it is better if the caloric deficit isn’t as dramatic, to help preserve muscle mass. We can use calorie cycling to do this (ie higher calories for some days, lower for others across the course of 7-14 days, such as the 5:2 approach), or a consistently lower calorie approach, whatever fits in with the individual and their adherence. This study found that working on a weekly reduction of 0.7% of body weight better than 1.4% for preservation of lean muscle tissue.
  4. A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition, and this allows flexibility with programme design, which is great – again, there is no one right approach for everyone. AND there is no one approach that will suit the same individual all the time – context, physical activity, stress, budget etc will all affect the suitability of an eating style that will improve body composition. This in part could explain why Weight Watchers, which helped you drop weight in the past, is not working now – regardless of how many points you are under at the end of the day/week. Being flexible rather than dogmatic will go a long way to finding a plan that suits you. I will also add, however, that something based on minimally processed food contains more nutrients – this will nourish your body and provide nutrients to ensure metabolism, brain and gut health are optimised while shifting excess body fat.
  5. When protein amounts are matched in the diet, there doesn’t appear to be an approach that reports a meaningful reduction of fat when we look at different macronutrient composition. All are as effective as each other – it’s sustainability which is the factor to consider. If an individual is insulin sensitive, research shows they are going to be able to lose weight on a moderate carbohydrate diet and potentially perform better on that than a lower carbohydrate diet. The reverse is also true. In addition, when adding resistance training to the mix, in some instances insulin sensitivity is improved. Therefore, knowing your metabolic health markers initially can help you determine what dietary approach might work for you.
  6. However, a ketogenic diet has been shown to have appetite-suppressing potential in part due to its effects on our appetite hormones (as explained in this review), resulting in a spontaneous caloric restriction. That said, for some this may only happen initially and clinically I have seen that this affect appears to wear off. (Note, this is my clinical observation).
  7. Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations (up to 2g/kg body weight) may improve body composition as in line with the ISSN’s position stand. It is also much more satiating for those of us who aren’t athletes, particularly in a restricted calorie state (as I’ve discussed here). There is also evidence that increasing protein in the diet beyond 3g/kg body weight and creating a calorie surplus can increase muscle mass and decrease fat mass simultaneously- I know! It’s like magic! Except very difficult to eat that much protein for a lot of people.
  8. Time-restricted feeding (which I’ve written about here) combined with resistance training is an emerging area of research that has thus far shown mixed results with respect to body composition (ie see here and here, however eating within that restricted window does allow for improvements in metabolic health. Much like cycling calories, the window of time that people choose to eat should be based on individual preference in a way that is easy to be sustained in everyday life. There is more to gain from having a good resistance-based training programme and adequate protein (in the context of an awesome diet) than worrying if your eating window is 8 hours a day or 9 hours a day.
  9. Do we starve our metabolism, thus slow it down and lead to fat gain if we restrict calories too much? Only in the context of a restrictive caloric diet and in the absence of resistance training where muscle mass has reduced, and energy expenditure has reduced. This can be mitigated when these are accounted for (see here and here).
  10. In addition to this, clinically what seems to work well is having a metabolic reset meal, where more fat/carb calories are consumed (which some might call a ‘treat’ or ‘cheat’ meal, particularly in the fitness industry) – this might be 1-2 meals every 7-14 days depending on the individual and their goals.
  11. There needs to be more research on women, older adults
  12. There needs to be more research on meal frequency and timing combined with different caloric loads, and with different training regimes.

Despite all of the above, a member of my online nutrition coaching system shared with me her experience with improving overall health (and metabolic markers – prior to embarking on her regime her HbA1c was in ‘pre-diabetic’ range). She found focusing on a higher fat approach, coupled with water fasting helps her control her insulin resistance and overall health much more than focusing on protein intake. While a few years ago this would have set alarm bells ringing in my head, the longer I’m in the game the more I understand that it is so individual as to how someone will respond to a dietary approach. Being willing to experiment with different protocols will help you figure out what works best for you regardless of the research papers.

 

Fuelling the fat-adapted athlete

On August 1st I’m releasing my athlete-specific meal plan, which is a long time coming given that I consult with many endurance athletes! It’s hard to be specific with a general plan, clearly, particularly when it comes to training nutrition, so when you sign up I encourage you to contact me to see if we need to tweak the elements of this plan to suit your training.

The goal of an athlete training plan is to provide fuel where required, be strategic about the type of fuel and when to have it. I want to help make you a more efficient athlete – so your training and recovery is optimised to enable you to get out there day in, day out in the best possible shape. This will allow you to show up to the start line (or game day) in the best position to do your best. Like recovery, nutrition is vital to enhancing fitness gains from your session – eating the wrong types of food increases oxidative stress and dampens down your immune system, leaving you susceptible to inflammation, illness and injury. If you don’t recover effectively from the previous training session, your ability to get out the next time and hit certain paces/power is compromised – therefore overall fitness gains aren’t realised and you may not reach your potential awesomeness. I’ve written about this previously in more detail here.

To be metabolically efficient, we want to be strategic about when and how we have our carbohydrate, how much we have and the quality of the carbohydrate source. That is why in the plans I focus on adding fruit, kumara or potato after training if the training requires additional carbohydrate to support recovery. By removing carbohydrate from the pre-training meal/snack, we don’t have an insulin response that will drive circulating glucose (what carbohydrate is broken into) in to your muscle cells, shutting down lipolysis (fat burning). The body will be forced to use alternative fuel sources such as fat which, as an endurance athlete, we should be primed to do. The reality is, though, the modern diet that a typical athlete follows has made sugar burning the default training state, even at low intensities. Even the leanest marathon runner has enough fat calories on board to go out and run back to back races – accessing this though is the problem! Fat as a fuel source creates a lot less oxidative damage and reactive oxidative species, thereby the inflammation you experience post-training is reduced, recovery is enhanced, and you’ll be able to hit the next session fighting fit. We need to adapt from a carb burner to a fat burner for you to go out and train and not risk bonking or running out of fuel. The switch over doesn’t happen overnight, and if you’re new to this approach then training can feel pretty sluggish to begin with – but hang in there as it does get easier!

There are different approaches to fuelling depending on your goal:

Pre-training

If body composition improvement is your goal, it is best to do fasted training sessions or use coffee/caffeine as an ergogenic aid and fuel afterwards. This doesn’t mean that you’ll lose MORE body fat than if you were just to reduce calories, but it will force your body to tap into its own reserves, which (when combined with this dietary approach) I’ve clinically seen helps accelerate fat loss in the context of this eating style. For extended, longer duration >3h+ then having some fuel (as suggested in plan) can be a good idea, or starting fasted and taking on board fuel after 45-90 minutes depending on session is optimal.

If you are happy with your body composition or do not want to drop any body fat, then you can choose to take on board some fat before training – such as cream in coffee, MCT oil powder in coffee, or ketones. By fueling before training, you will shut down your own fat oxidation, but be upregulating pathways for fat oxidation, however it will be burning the fat that you consumed. This option is also good for people who have higher cortisol levels – training in the absence of any fuel can further exacerbate the ‘stress’ response from your hypothalamus (brain). Taking on board some calories sends signals to your brain that there is no need to stress. Taking the ketone supplement has been found (compared to fasting) to upregulate fat oxidation at lower given intensities; once the intensity rises to a high intensity, the opposite may be true (potentially due to the ketones being used to spare glycogen at the higher intensities).

If you struggle to maintain your weight and need to work at keeping calories high, then adding in some additional protein alongside could also be a good option – this could be a couple of hardboiled eggs, some scrambled eggs, additional fat-based calories or a smoothie based on nuts, avocado, some protein powder, coconut milk, greens, with no fruit). Again, this will provide a minimal insulin response, meaning your body will be burning the fuel you provide it (fat calories) and therefore working towards improving metabolic efficiency.

In all instances above, 10g of branched chain amino acid powder can help fuel a longer session – just mix in water beforehand.

In a perfect world, the best type of training to do if you are new to this is low intensity training; this is because your body needs to relearn how to burn fat as its primary fuel source. The ultimate goal down the line is to become metabolically flexible (ie easily shift between both sugar burning and fat burning) – and that will happen! That means the natural switch over to burning sugar that occurs when training at higher intensities will not impact on your fat-burning capabilities at the lower intensities. Right now, though, if it’s all new to you, your default is to burn glucose at that high intensity. Any shift back into glucose burning at this stage will impact on your ability to burn fat and can leave you in no-mans land when it comes to training. What I mean is, you are following a lower carbohydrate approach to diet, so there is no glucose on board as a ready source of fuel, yet you are too high intensity for your body to use fat as a primary fuel source (at this stage). No mans land.

However, it rarely happens that an athlete is always training low intensity, even in their off season. Therefore supplementing with an exogenous ketone supplement (such as Pruvit) provides your body with fuel the way a carbohydrate gel provides glucose. Ketones are the byproduct of fat metabolism, and when you burn fat as a fuel source, your body generates these to support metabolism. At a high intensity if you’re new to this, taking exogenous ketones provide you the fuel to enhance fat oxidation before your body has the machinery in place to do it for you. Otherwise the intensity will force your body to switch back to glucose burning. Remember, in the initial phases of your fat-fuelled approach, your body has to upregulate the machinery required for fat adaptation – it isn’t the default fuelling response. Any opportunity to switch back to burning sugar, it will take it.

Taking the ketones (along with MCT oil powder) will provide the fuel you need for the training without the need to use glucose, and is recommended in this instance. Further, ketones aid in recovery from longer sessions, and most athletes I work with who use them experience reduced inflammation, less excessive hunger, and can go for longer at a higher given intensity without an increase in their heart rate or perceived effort. Most have also experienced improved body composition due to these reasons. My recommendation is to have ½ sachet of the ketones and you can include 10g of MCT oil powder with it prior to your session.

During training:

 Shorter training up to 2h, low-mod intensity

Nothing – perhaps water, or an electrolyte fluid (no carbohydrates required*)

 Medium length from 2-3h low-mod intensity

Evaluate how you feel, take some MCT mix (see below), Superstarch (30g/hour in 750 ml bottle), ketones as below (sachet in 750ml bottle, 1/3 bottle hour), otherwise just electrolyte fluid.

Longer training: over 3h

36g MCT oil powder + 20g BCAA + ¼ tsp salt in 750 ml bottle OR sachet ketones, 18g MCT oil powder + 20g BCAA in 750ml bottle – ¼ bottle per hour AND every 45 minutes have something small, solid, food based: ¼ – ½ Cliff bar, 30g cheese, hardboiled egg, small handful cashews, ½ UCAN superstarch bar, homemade bar (such as apple pie blondie).

If including high intensity intervals

Try carb rinsing: 5-10 minutes before starting effort, have a glucose tablet, thereby trickling in carbohydrate – this method tells your brain you’ve had carbohydrate onboard without taking anything on. OR have sachet ketones in drink bottle as above.

*may need something if getting into it for first time, and suggestion is the ketone supplement here to help aid the fat oxidation pathways.

 Post-training

If body composition improvements are a goal, train around your meals so you don’t need to eat in addition to them, also can create a ‘train low’ environment by withholding food for around 45-75 minutes to further enhance fat oxidation. If higher intensity effort, include 10g BCAA powder in water post-training to preserve muscle mass.

If happy with body composition, then you can do as above or add in a protein shake with around 25g protein, use unsweetened almond milk to help provide calories and preserve muscle mass. Having the other ½ of your ketone sachet here can enhance recovery. Include 10g BCAA in water post-training to preserve muscle mass.

If you struggle to maintain your weight (or you are training hard again in next 8 hour period), then adding in the protein shake as above, plus serve of good quality carbohydrate such as kumara, potato, a piece of fruit can provide calories plus easily digested fuel to support recovery. Including the other half of your ketone sachet here can enhance recovery and include 10g BCAA in water post-training to preserve muscle mass.

In all instances, if the training is long, then I think the benefits of post-workout fuel outweigh ‘train low’, especially if you have a heavy or longer session the next day as a lot of ultra runners or triathletes do.

This isn’t definitive, and someone else will have a different approach, however these are generally the guidelines I have used that work with clients and that may work with you.

Remember, though, the best way to get fat-adapted is to adopt a daily diet that supports fat metabolism – click here to sign up to my plans and use the above guidelines to support your training.

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The fuel I used pre-half marathon at the beginning of my marathon training program: 1/2 ketone sachet, MCT oil powder, coffee and PB.

Starving? Read this and you won’t be.

One of the biggest downfalls I see with diet is the lack of protein across the course of the day. A typical pattern I see when I talk to people about their food intake and their appetite is:

“I’m ‘good’ all day, but can’t control myself come 5pm”

OR

“I’m fine all day, but after dinner regardless of how full I feel, I’m not ‘satisfied’ ”

OR

“I’m ‘good’ till Wednesday then it’s all downhill from there”

Any of this ring true? The reason I bring this up is that many people report being absolutely starving, constantly thinking about their next meal and (more often than not) their frustration with being unable to lose body fat as they view their diet as being pretty good. When we delve further, I see quite clearly that when people are “good” it generally means they are undereating during the day, and this leads to almost a binge-like pattern later in the evening, or just an inability to stop snacking. A typical pattern might be:

  • Breakfast: cereal + fruit + trim milk (cos, you know, fat is bad)
  • MT piece of fruit/trim latte OR nothing
  • Lunch: chicken salad perhaps 50g chicken, no-fat dressing, no carbs (hey, we got rid of them back in the 90s!)
  • AT: nothing, or a carrot or similar
  • 5pm: a small handful of nuts, then a slightly larger one.
  • 13pm: a carrot. And hummus
  • 21pm: a few spoons of PB,
  • 47pm: cheese while making dinner
  • 10pm: leftovers off the kids plate,
  • 32pm: dinner (full!)
  • 20pm: piece dark chocolate
  • 35pm: bite of icecream *well I’ve blown it now*
  • 40pm: bowl of icecream *I’ll be better tomorrow*
  • 10pm: 3 rows of chocolate…..

Does this look familiar? While they may be low calorie/fat/carb during the day, people with this dietary pattern will generally consume more calories than they realise in that pre-post dinner window. This isn’t just about calories and fat loss though. Many people also suffer from anxiety around their food intake, gut or digestive issues from consuming more food than what is comfortable, sleep issues due to an excess of food close to bedtime, and unhelpful self-talk related to their perceived lack of control. This last point can be particularly damaging to long term success, as for some this can perpetuate feelings of failure and subsequent behaviours which make it difficult to change in the long term. Other long term consequences of a low protein and low dietary energy early in the day include reduced muscle mass, reduced metabolic rate, low mood and a greater propensity for fat gain in the long run.

How to prevent this?

Eat more protein at the start of the day – it is more satisfying and is digested a LOT slower than other nutrients, and will prevent overeating later in the day. What you eat at the start of the day really impacts how you feel and what you eat at the end of the day. Many experts in the field of protein research view 0.8-0.9g protein per kilogram of bodyweight, based on nitrogen balance studies, are likely underestimating overall protein requirements. This is especially true for those in the older age bracket and for people wanting to drop body fat where studies such as this have found that 2.4g protein per kg bodyweight can help maintain metabolic rate and protect muscle mass. Clinically (which, to my mind, is as important as what the literature says), very few of my clients thrive on a lower protein diet. Athletes (FYI) are recommended around 1.7-2.2g per kg bodyweight and in general a higher protein intake will benefit mood, sleep, blood sugar and appetite.

So what does 2.4g per kilogram look like for the myriad of people out there wanting to drop body fat? IE if you weigh 75kg, your protein intake should be around 180g. If we consider the standard protein sources available, then it might look a little like this (amount of protein in brackets):

  • Breakfast: 4 eggs (29.2g) – with vegetables, scrambled, cooked in butter, coconut oil or olive oil
  • Lunch: Medium chicken thigh 146g (34g), sliced up into salad with olive oil dressing and lemon
  • AT: ½ cup of cottage cheese (18g) with pesto mixed through
  • Dinner: Medium steak (186g) with roast vegetables 57.3g

Well, that is 139.4g of protein per day, around 1.86g per kilogram body weight, leaving an additional 40g of protein being derived from plant sources. You can see that you have to eat a lot of food to get your protein in – which is completely different from the ‘being good’ scenario above.

While the run down of foods to eat above may freak you out if you’re used to a cereal and salad diet – don’t be scared. If your dietary pattern looks much as I described above, allowing more protein earlier in the day will have a huge influence on your overall intake – the pattern of grazing late afternoon into the evening will change. I promise. I’ve written about the protein leverage theory before when discussing the National Heart Foundation’s food guidance system (click here for that post) – that the body has an innate requirement for protein and will drive appetite until this is requirement is met. If you eat a lower protein diet, research suggests you may eat more overall calories (and calories from refined carbohydrate) compared to people consuming a moderate protein diet. I know many people don’t like eating more food earlier as they don’t believe they have the willpower to stop. I recently wrote about the main physiological driver of ‘lack of willpower’, and eating more protein will kill this response pretty quick. You just have to try it. When combined with fibre, a bit of fat and carbohydrate that takes longer to digest, protein is (to my mind) the nutrient to focus on for controlling appetite, hunger levels and helping maintain an optimal body composition.

Protein quality definitely counts here too. This measure has been revised recently to reflect updated knowledge regarding the digestibility of protein, however regardless of technique used to establish bioavailability of protein source, animal protein consistently scores higher than plant protein in terms of protein quality (with 0.75 as a cut-off for good digestibility – see here for some food-based tables). This will have implications for their effect on appetite (i.e. ability to keep you satisfied). In part this is due to the presence of anti-nutritive factors in plant based proteins (such as lecthins, tannins, phytates etc) that prevent our absorption of them (see here for a comprehensive report on the digestibility of protein). This is not to say that plant protein doesn’t count. I have many clients who are vegetarian and, for them we ensure a good intake of eggs, cheese and protein powder (whey, pea or egg white protein powder for a good variety). People following a vegan diet are a little more challenged. While they will get protein from legumes, nuts, edamame beans, tempeh and seeds, I recommend (again) protein powders, and incorporating a variety of these (such as pea, hemp and sacha incha) in their daily diet. These are lower in overall protein compared to, say, whey (sacha incha has around 12g per 20g serve (60% protein), compared to whey protein (17-18g, or 85-90%). But if we are looking to increase protein across the course of the day, these will certainly be useful.

So…what about you?

If you’re a numbers person, think about your goals (weight loss, muscle maintenance etc) and shoot for the grams per protein I’ve mentioned above. Use Easy Diet Diary, My Net Diary, Fat Secret or Cronometer to find out how much protein is in the foods that you’re eating, and what the distribution of it is across the course of the day. Then use the information provided to plan for a higher protein intake and a more even distribution. At the very least, aim for around 25-30g of protein in your meals. If you’re not a numbers person, then use tables like these to give you an indication of where protein is in food. Aiming for:

  • 3-4 eggs at breakfast, or 120g protein-based food or 1-2 fist-sized worth; and
  • at least 120-150g of protein-based food at lunch (or 1-2 fist-sized); and closer to
  • 160-200g protein-based food at dinner (or 1-2 fist-sized); and

shooting for the higher numbers the more active or the bigger you are and THEN base the remainder of your macronutrient intake (carbohydrate and fat) around this – and don’t forget the abundance of non-starchy vegetables. If you want some help with this, get into contact with me or sign up for my online nutrition coaching – this is pretty much how I build my meals. While initially you may feel hungry, this will likely be habit rather than actual hunger (or a hormonal response, as your body’s appetite hormones work on a circadian rhythm and ghrelin may well be released as your body is used to eating at that time. Brushing your teeth is one of the best things to do to cut that hunger. If you wait it out, it will eventually pass and you’ll easily eradicate the feeling of hunger, the grazing later in the day and regain the feeling of control around your food (rather than letting the food control you).

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Thankfully, it hasn’t come to this. There is an easier way to control your appetite… (PC healthycompare.com/diet-pills)

No willpower when it comes to food? Read this.

‘ The chocolate bar calls my name. No, really – I can’t NOT eat it if it’s in the house.’

Many people I talk to lament that they can’t control themselves when it comes to sugar or junk food – that they don’t have the willpower to say ‘no’ despite their best efforts. This implies that they have all the control. Now I’m not saying there isn’t an element of discipline that may initially be required when changing the way you eat, especially for people who have lost touch with their appetite and satiety signals which can happen when the food eaten drives unfavourable hormone responses in the body; a phenomenon which is common in the current food environment. However, there are other more powerful forces at play here. Your No physiology has far more say in your food decisions than you think, and I’m going to cover one of the main ones I see (and one of the easiest ones to correct) that will help people control their food intake, rather than let their food control them: the blood sugar rollercoaster

This is one of the biggest drivers of cravings in my experience. The type of diet that many people follow is either carbohydrate heavy or devoid of protein and fat. Both situations are going to set your blood sugar up for rise and fall of (what can be) epic proportions. When carbohydrate is broken down into the bloodstream into glucose, this takes our blood glucose level out of homeostasis (normal). One thing our body likes is homeostasis – a blood sugar level too high or too low will send signals to the brain that this needs to be corrected. The greater the fluctuation, the louder this signal is. Insulin is the hormone responsible for removing glucose from the bloodstream to be used immediately for energy or to store it for later use (in our muscles and liver) and return the blood glucose level to homeostasis (normal). However, a meal that has a large amount of carbohydrate (a high carbohydrate load) will accelerate this process, as will a meal that has minimal protein or fat (even with a lower carbohydrate load, as the proportion of carbohydrate will still be greater). This is because insulin responds first and foremost to carbohydrate, with a minimal response to protein containing foods, and (for most people) a negligible response to foods predominantly containing fat. When this process is accelerated, insulin moves too much glucose into cells and our blood glucose level rapidly drops to below normal (an over-correction). The signal to our brain therefore becomes a panic signal: blood sugar has dipped below normal and needs to be rapidly restored – enter sweet food cravings as our brain recognises these foods are going to return our blood glucose levels back to within that normal range much quicker than, say, a salad. Along with the cravings, we may experience ravenous hunger (where 15 minutes earlier you felt fine), irritability (‘hangry’) and (in particularly bad cases) dizziness, light-headedness, sweating and vision loss.

The quicker the carbohydrates are digested (especially in the absence of fat and /or protein), the higher the rise and fall in blood sugar, and the greater the effects on energy and subsequent cravings for food (and ‘lack of willpower’). You may be fine for the morning and rapidly cave in post 3pm. Or it might be that Monday and Tuesday you are sweet, but by Wednesday you are raiding the kids ‘treat’ box in the pantry.

This isn’t just an issue with regards to blood sugar management and fat loss goals, but more importantly it can make you feel pretty rubbish. So many people start a tirade of negative talk that they weren’t able to say ‘no’ to a paleo muffin or chocolate biscuit, that they have ‘failed again’ and they ‘may as well finish the entire packet as it’s the last time they’ll eat X food again.’ Or their inability to resist a sweet treat clearly indicates they aren’t worthy of whatever health goal or life goal they’ve set themselves, and will eat junk food as a form of punishment (or undereat to try to get it under control), and so starts the rollercoaster ride of the blood sugar crash.

While I’d like to say it’s really easy to figure out which foods are most likely to cause this process, recent research tells us that there is wide individual variation. You are your own best investigator when trying to figure this out. It is useful, of course, to know where carbohydrate comes form in the diet and starting to explore how these foods affect you specifically. You can use an app like Easy Diet Diary, My Net Diary, Fat Secret to help you determine where the carbohydrate is in your usual diet if all of this is new to you. That said, an energy dense, carbohydrate source is more likely to trigger a blood sugar response. These include (but are not limited to):

  • Dates
  • Other dried fruit
  • Honey
  • Rice malt syrup
  • Bread
  • Pasta
  • Rice
  • Cereal (including Nutrigrain, Cheerios, most cereals with a Health Star Rating)
  • Honey
  • Coconut sugar
  • Kumara
  • Potato
  • Grapes
  • Fruit juice
  • Vegetable juice with a fruit juice base
  • Vegetable juice with beetroot/carrot base

This doesn’t mean that all of the above choices are bad! At all, however, in the wrong amounts, and when eaten in isolation of other food choices, these are more likely to spike your insulin levels than other foods. Artificial sweeteners do not get a free pass either, unfortunately, with some showing the same physiological effects as sweet foods, eliciting a glucose/insulin response.

So… it’s not willpower, people – it’s physiology.

The easiest and *best* way that helps mitigate this is NOT a supplement. While these can be useful in certain situations or medical conditions, for most people it comes down to food timing and balancing. Protein and fat don’t have the same insulin effect, so they are not going to cause the same blood glucose rollercoaster that carbohydrate does. Incorporating these as the majority of your energy source is going to slow down the digestion of the carbohydrate you eat and the subsequent rise in blood glucose. Without reaching the same ‘highs’, your blood glucose doesn’t have the same drops – and cravings, hunger and crashing energy levels are FAR less likely. Fibre from non-starchy vegetables are another way to have this effect and help maintain a homeostatic state.

Despite what I say, what other experts tell you or what the literature or dietary guidelines tell us, you are your own best investigator when it comes to figuring out what works for you. One of the easiest ways to measure how food affects your blood sugar control is to assess the qualitative signs after eating: do you feel like falling asleep after a carb-based meal? Do you get moody, irritable, ‘hangry’ a couple of hours after eating? Are you fine, fine, fine, STARVING a few hours after eating? These are all good indicators that your blood sugar is in control of your actions (rather than you). From a quantitative perspective, getting a glucometer (finger-prick blood glucose reader) from the pharmacy and testing your blood sugar two hours after eating a particular food or meal is another good way to see how this affects your blood sugar levels. If it lurks above the 7 mmol/L mark at this point, then potentially the carbohdyrate type (or the context with which you ate it) isn’t ideal for you. Remember, this isn’t just about the food you’re eating at that time, it has implications for your food decisions later in the day. This is potentially more important if you find you have ‘no willpower.’ If you need help figuring out what to do from here, contact me for a consultation, we can sort it out.

Finally, pro-tip: when eating a meal, eat the protein and vegetables before tucking into the carbohydrate component. This will lower the post-prandial glucose response and the overall effect on your energy levels, levelling them out as opposed to leading to a crash.

Time restricted eating: when you eat matters

Intermittent fasting is an increasingly popular phenomenon among people wishing to improve their body composition and their overall health – almost as much as consuming the latest superfood.

Intermittent fasting (or time restricted eating, as it is known in the scientific literature) is when we restrict our eating during the day to a window of from around 8 hours to 12 hours, and has been popularised by the fitness industry in recent years. There are different ways to approach it, though from a health perspective, eating earlier in the day to allow for the feeding to align with our body’s circadian rhythm may optimise the health benefits for overall longevity. Fasting has been a practice undertaken for centuries in some cultures, and research reports favourable effects on many markers of metabolic health, including blood lipid profile, blood glucose metabolism and hypertension when these populations have been studied. More recently, researchers have investigated different time restricted feeding protocols in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, diabetes and some cancers using rodent and human trials. The longer time spent fasting may have pronounced health benefits, though recently a more conservative method (of even an 11 hour fast) has emerged as being beneficial for certain populations. Indeed, time restricted eating is being thought of as an easy to implement, effective lifestyle intervention that could help improve appetite control, markers of overweight, inflammation, blood glucose metabolism and hypertension, all reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers. This recent small study found that late night (or prolonged eating periods) increased fasting glucose, blood triglycerides, insulin and weight gain.

When healthy adults eat meals that are identical in terms of macronutrients (ie carbohydrates, proteins and fats) and caloric load at breakfast, lunch and dinner, the postprandial (ie. after eating) glucose response to the meal is lowest after breakfast and highest after dinner, even though the meal is identical. This is one example which suggests that our metabolism, and response to food, changes across the course of the day (see here). We are diurnal creatures – we do most of our activities during the day (including eating, working, exercising) and we rest at night. This is controlled by our internal clock in the brain, the superchiasmatic nucleus (or SCN) which in turn influences smaller internal clocks (or oscillators) in the peripheral tissues of our body. These clocks control thousands of genes within our body, including those that regulate our metabolic processes, which accounts for around 10% of our entire genome. While light is the major cue for the SCN in our brain, timing of food intake influences the circadian rhythm in the other tissues, including the liver, which has implications for metabolism. This tells us that our basic metabolic physiology is supposed to behave differently according to the time of day – this is everything from making neurotransmitters, to making insulin, to glucose transport inside of cells, to fatty acid oxidation and repairing cellular damage. It makes sense then that when we eat has just as important implications for our health as what we eat. Research investigating the health effects of fasting has found that anything that breaks the fast will break the fasting period, including no calorie options such as black coffee and even herbal teas. This is because there are compounds within these fluids that require breaking down by the liver. That is not to say that people don’t experience benefits from fasting if they consume a hot beverage earlier in the day (as is often recommended to help get through the morning hours and comply with a 16:8 protocol) or limited calories (for example, 50 calories), however longevity benefits may well lie within the strictest definition of fasting.

With the advent of artificial light, and the changing structure of work schedules (combined with the increasing busy-ness of everyday life), this has elongated the period of time that people eat, which has negative health consequences. While you may have heard in media reports of scientific studies that eating late at night makes no difference to overall weight loss, the focus on weight ignores the more important, underlying metabolic and chronic disease risk that eating late into the evening can have on health outcomes. It may be easier to regulate appetite too, as  research suggests that appetite hormones respond more favourably to eating earlier (8am to 7pm) than later (noon – 11pm), and the level of satiety achieved with this could prevent overeating. This is relevant with time restricted feeding as research has shown that more frequent eating patterns can be detrimental to metabolic health if consumed close together. One study found that participants who ate excess calories consuming their food over three meals and three snacks had increased visceral (stomach) fat deposition, liver triglycerides and lower liver insulin sensitivity compared to those consuming the same number of calories over three meals. The snacks were consumed later in the day, and after each meal, so elongated the overall eating period.

Animals limited to 9-12 hours feeding period, but not limited in the number of calories they eat have experienced benefits including decreased fat mass, increased lean muscle mass, improved glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile, reduced inflammation, higher volume of mitochondria (the energy powerhouse of our body), protection from fatty liver and obesity, and a more favourable gene expression. In humans, research studies suggest that eating within a time restricted window of 11 hours (say, 7am to 6pm) is associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk and occurrence by as much as 36%. Earlier eating time has resulted in more effective weight loss in overfat people, and every 3 hour increase in fasting duration was linked with 20% reduced odds of having an elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of long term blood sugar control. For every 10% increase in calories consumed after 5pm there was a 3% increase in c-reactive protein, a biomarker used to measure inflammation (the underlying process that, when elevated long term, can influence risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers). Finally, when meal times were constructed earlier in the day this resulted in a 10% decrease in c-reactive protein. Eating within a 12-hour window improved sleep and weight loss within an otherwise healthy population. You can see then, the myriad of potential benefits to eating within a time restricted eating – could it be worth trying to fit into your lifestyle? And if so, how to do it?

There are many different time restricted eating protocols to choose from – and the type of fast you choose to do really comes down to what works for you. The 16:8 protocol that seems to be most popular is a little aggressive for anyone new to fasting, and this may ultimately leave you feeling hungry, cranky, and vulnerable to overeating later in the day – undoing any potential health benefit that has been shown in the research. Indeed, many people I see that try this as their first experience report that they can successfully get to 11am or lunchtime without eating, but once they are home from work, no amount of food will keep them full, eating right up until bedtime.  My advice is to start a little more conservatively. Given that (in an ideal world), we sleep for 8 hours a night, not eating in the 3 hours leading up to bed time should be a good place to start for most people, thus it gives that 11 hours where some of the health benefits begin to be realised. From there, once adapted, you could try to push it out by an hour. While the most potent benefits occur with the strictest definition of fasting, the blood glucose and lipid improvements, along with fat loss can still occur in those whose definition of fasting refers to calories, not coffee and tea as mentioned above. That the benefits occur in the absence of caloric restriction is important to reiterate, however by restricting the eating period, many people also reduce overall caloric intake, which can further improve overall metabolic health and body composition. Fasting doesn’t appear to be something you must do every day to see the health benefits either, and even 3-4 days a week could be beneficial for metabolic health.

That said, this reduction in calories and extended time NOT eating may not be good for all, especially if your notice increased anxiety, sleeplessness or disruptions in hormone balance, so it is always best to proceed with caution. It would also be prudent for any individual with a health condition to discuss with their health professional before embarking on time restricted eating, especially the more aggressive protocols.

(PS I’ve got dates booked for Nelson, Wellington, Dunedin and Christchurch for my talk! Click here to find out more details, would love to see you 🙂 ).

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As with many things, it could be all about timing…

10 tips to help reduce your water-bloat

I got a question on my members’ Facebook page a couple of weeks ago regarding water retention. There is nothing worse than a bloated tummy – it can not only make you feel physically uncomfortable, but can also wreak havoc on your psychological state (as many people equate the bloating to ‘feeling fat’, despite there being no relationship between the two). Further, a bloated stomach impacts on your ability to move properly. We can’t engage our core muscles, so aren’t able to move, lift, push or pull in a way that is functionally optimal. This has important implications for our core strength and injury prevention. Of course water rentention affects more than just our stomach – a long haul flight to somewhere warm can turn anyone’s lean calves into kankles due to changes in the pressure in the capillaries, causing fluid to leak out into the body tissues. There can be many reasons for this, so I thought I would investigate the most common causes and possible solutions.

  1. Minimize your sodium intake. Although sodium (aka salt) is an essential mineral because it’s used to regulate the fluid levels in body tissues, bringing water into the cells. Excess intake of sodium may cause excessive fluid retention in the body tissues. While the evidence behind this recommendation suggests it isn’t something that affects everyone, this may help some people, particularly those who are salt sensitive or hypertensive. Do note, though, that if you follow the types of principles that I suggest, your diet is probably quite low in salt anyway, as most salt comes from processed foods (around 70%). However, there are whole foods that are high in sodium, such as cheese, miso, cured meats and biltong, so you could reduce these, and avoid adding salt to your food to see if this makes a difference.
  2. I probably don’t need to tell you to avoid eating too many refined carbohydrates – these tend to spike insulin, which causes sodium (often found in these foods) to be re-absorbed back into the kidneys, thus increasing water retention. Your best bet for carbohydrate foods are those whole-food, minimally refined varieties that have negligible sodium for a start, and that you eat in a mixed meal with good fats and proteins to help slow down the release of carbohydrate into your bloodstream, minimising insulin response.
  3. Any form of dehydration can cause your body to hold onto water. Therefore, ensure that if you drink alcohol, do extended exercise training sessions, or are in a hotter environment that you remain well hydrated to offset any potential for dehydration. The fluid you lose during exercise should be replaced in the three hours after training, and at 1.5 times the amount lost – you can work out how much this is by weighing yourself before and after an exercise session. The amount of weight lost roughly equates to the amount of fluid lost. Prior to drinking alcohol, have a couple of glasses of water (this will also help slow down your drinking). And be an adult about how you drink: is it necessary to drink more than a few in any one sitting?
  4. Take adequate amounts of vitamin B6 combined with magnesium. For women, prior to your period you can feel a little bloated and that you are retaining water. Interestingly, however, some research investigating the timing of this around the menstrual cycle has found bloating occurs more in the onset of your cycle (day 1) after which is rapidly declines, despite the perception of puffiness or bloating in the week prior to menstruation. This puffiness, however, could well be related to food choices in that week, as the intake of higher sugar choices can increase for some.
  5. If you have water retention before your period, you may, however, benefit from taking both a magnesium supplement (at 250mg per day) combined with a vitamin B6 supplement (40mg) daily – a study found this combination the most effective for decreasing premenstrual symptoms when administered for two months by balancing your hormone levels.
  6. Potassium works in conjunction with sodium, pumping fluid out of the body cells. Therefore, if you aren’t consuming enough then it could cause problems with water retention. The reality is, though, that you are following the meal plan and including plenty of vegetables, your potassium intake is likely fine. However, if you don’t have a good intake of vegetables (at least 7 serves per day) then increasing these is a good idea. This will also bump up your fibre intake, which can further help reduce fluid retention.
  7. Take natural diuretics. Dandelion root has long been used to help flush water out of the body – therefore investing in a good tea such as this Golden Fields one is not only delicious (often used as a substitute to coffee), it will also be beneficial. In addition, this kidney cleanse tea from Artemis has other natural diuretics to help flush water out.
  8. Exercise regularly. Exercise can help reduce water retention, not just by increasing sweating, but by moving water from the intercellular compartments to the muscles.
  9. Increase your caloric intake, if only for a day. I know – this one sounds weird, but a ground-breaking study in the 1950s called the Minnesota Experiment found something interesting mid-way through their study. The study followed men on a 1500 Calorie diet for 6 months, and subjected to hours of hard labour per day. Half way through the trial the men were allowed a celebration meal, effectively increasing their caloric intake to 2300 Calories. Following a night of getting up to go to the bathroom several times, the men were a few pounds lighter the following morning. Obviously, the weight lost was water weight – but why would this be the case? Potentially the long-term calorie deficit caused an increase in cortisol levels, and this increases water retention in the body. By increasing caloric load, the body reduced cortisol levels and this reduced water retention.
  10. Reduce overall stress load. As we have just discovered, higher cortisol levels will increase water retention, therefore anything you can do to reduce stress is going to impact favourably on water loss. Let’s not forget the impact that high stress levels have on blood sugar levels, inflammation and fat gain (to name just three areas it impacts). While stress is a perception of a situation, and changing your mind-set is one of the best things you can do to lower stress levels, ensure you are getting adequate sleep, time in nature, time with loved ones and taking time just for yourself. These are going to help lower your cortisol levels and combat any stress-related water retention.

So… not a definitive list, but hopefully a few pointers to help you get to the bottom of your fluid retention issues and make some improvements. For more individual advice, don’t hesitate to contact me for a consultation or for online nutrition coaching. Further, if you’re in the Bay of Plenty, Queenstown, Nelson or Wellington regions, then I’m headed your way for an evening of ‘real food’ talk – click here to find out more information and to book tickets!

 

LCHF…why isn’t it working for me? (Part 2)

Last week I posted three reasons why many people undertaking a LCHF diet stall with their success or never get it off the ground to begin with. The following delve a little deeper into the less obvious reasons why people struggle with their diet, and offer some options to help troubleshoot.

  1. Fat doesn’t fill you up. For some people, they don’t feel satisfied when swapping out their carbohydrate for more fat. If it takes a few handfuls of nuts or half a block of cheese to feel satisfied, then there can be some serious increase in calories that isn’t compensated for by an appropriate increase in satiety from the meal. Yes, cheese and nuts contain protein, but to be honest I treat them more as sources of fat than I do protein. If this is you, then.
    1. Increase the portion of protein you are consuming with your meals. I know many people are scared to consume more protein because protein can be broken down into glucose in the absence of carbohydrate, therefore pushing up their blood sugar levels. For people on a ketogenic diet (where 80% of their calories should come from fat), or those metabolically damaged (whereby there is a dramatic change in blood glucose response from a protein-rich meal), this may be a problem. For most people though? upping protein by 1/3 of a serve is no biggie. Still hungry? Up the protein some more.
    2. Drop out some fat –make room for the added protein by dropping out some of the fat – you could start with ½ – 1 serve and see how satisfied you feel when you do that. A serve of fat is typically 1 tablespoon of oil or butter, or ¼ avocado.
  2. You’re eating too much in one meal. A lot of people move from three meals a day, to two a day, to a ‘minimal food during the day’ approach, to sit down to a large meal at night, especially if they’ve been in the LCHF way of eating for a while and are further tweaking it. This may be awesome for some people, but not all. Eating most of your calories in one meal can, though, wreak havoc on your metabolic blood markers (such as blood glucose levels and insulin), increase fat gain, inflammation and reduce your day-to-day energy if this eating pattern doesn’t suit you. You’ll know if this is you, and if it is then:
    1. Spread your food intake out across 2-3 meals to lighten the caloric load and see if this makes a difference to your energy or other more objective markers mentioned above.
    2. Remember you’re still a rockstar even if you have to eat more often.
  3. You’ve got a high intake of dairy or nuts. Some, especially women, are not suited to high amounts of dairy or nuts, and when the begin to include more of these foods – ones they’ve avoided for years due to their fat content – they have a weight loss stall they can’t move past or, worse, they begin to store fat around their middle. While some suggest cheese is a food akin to crack, research investigating the addictive properties of the protein in cheese have not found this to be the case. Of course, if you personally can’t stop at one slice and find you’re eating the block, then perhaps it is for you. Nuts can also be trigger foods for some people, and they find it difficult to stop once they’ve started eating them. Ditto with a jar of peanut butter. What to do?
    1. Omit dairy for 30 days – sometimes it’s not the dairy per se, it’s the amounts that you’re eating it in that need to change. Removing it entirely will allow you to change your habits and then reintroduce it.
    2. Omit nuts and/or nut butter as per above in #6a.
    3. Swap snacks to those that are predominantly protein-based rather than fat based – despite the satiating effects of fat, for some, it’s just not like having protein. A hardboiled egg or some leftover chicken wrapped in lettuce or nori sheets (my current obsession) may satisfy you more.
  4. Genetically this isn’t the diet for you. If metabolic markers such as cholesterol, blood sugar or inflammatory factors go skewiff then it could be the LCHF approach doesn’t suit you. Genetic variation in the ApoE gene (ApoE4) is associated with LDL cholesterol not being recycled very well, and therefore it’s more likely to hang around the bloodstream and increase the chances of it becoming either oxidised or being transformed into smaller LDL particles, both highly atherogenic. Variants in the gene FTO can increase risk of obesity in the context of a high saturated fat and low polyunsaturated fat intake and may increase risk of high blood sugar and diabetes in individuals already overfat. The PPAR genes plays a role in ketogenesis (the oxidation of fat for energy) and storage of fat by activating genes associated with fatty acid transport and metabolism. Variants of this gene (particularly PPARa and PPARg ) are associated with increased risk of high triglycerides, total small dense LDL cholesterol and type 2 diabetes in the context of high saturated fat to polyunsaturated fat intake. Further, individual glycemic (blood sugar responses) vary considerably for the same amount of carbohydrate in food, suggesting there are a lot of factors to consider when determining the best diet for you (such as genetics, gut microbiome, activity level, stress etc), not just its macronutrient content. How to figure out if LCHF is not the diet for you? A few things to consider:
    1. Are you losing weight? If so, then wait until your weight stabilises and then retest your numbers – your body recycles triglycerides that are released from adipose (fat) tissue, therefore your triglyceride levels can appear high, but it is transient.
    2. Don’t get your cholesterol levels measured if injured, if you haven’t slept properly or you’ve been under significant stress. Cholesterol levels can change easily based on environmental triggers.
    3. Some people notice their cholesterol increases specifically in response to dairy fat, others to coconut fat – experiment for 6-12 weeks by dropping these out of your diet and get your cholesterol levels retested to see if this brings a drop in your numbers. Replace it with foods that have a more balanced fatty acid profile (such as lard or beef tallow) and foods high in monounsaturated fat or omega 3 fats, such as avocadoes, olive oil, nuts, seeds, salmon, mackerel, sardines.
    4. Here’s one I prepared earlier (and by ‘one’, I mean, ‘post on reducing your cholesterol naturally’. And by ‘naturally’ I mean ‘without Flora Pro Activ’).
    5. Get more in-depth testing of your cardiovascular disease risk profile – cholesterol is one measure and possibly not the most important one. CRP, fibrinogen, LDL particle size, number, oxidation and patterning can all give you more information than the run-of-the-mill lab test can. Contact me as I can help you arrange this testing which, for the most part, your doc might not even be aware of.
    6. Consider getting tested to find out your genetic predisposition (either through your doctor, or I can assist via Fitgenes gene testing).
    7. Consider dropping your fat intake, upping your protein intake and perhaps your carbohydrate intake too – ala the Zone diet approach. Despite its gimmicky name, it’s proven itself to be very effective for blood sugar stabilisation and blood cholesterol management. Some people just aren’t meant to eat a higher fat diet.
  5. You’ve got an intolerance you didn’t realise you had. Going LCHF means, for many, significantly increasing fat content in the diet from the obvious choices: cheese, nuts, seeds, avocados and coconut products. However, while these are awesome in terms of the nutrients they deliver, they can cause digestive issues in a number of people. Avocado, coconut, nuts and seeds are moderate-high in FODMAPs – a type of carbohydrate that can cause bloating, abdominal pain and other irritable bowel symptoms in many people. Further, the inclusion of larger amounts of cream, cheese or full fat yoghurt can be problematic due to an intolerance to the dairy protein or fat which can result in similar IBS in susceptible people. If you’ve been following a low-fat diet for many years, enzymes that help digest the fat and protein may be downregulated, so your body might not cope with the additional amounts. Sometimes it is a matter of backing down and building up, and sometimes it is that these foods just don’t agree with you. What to do? One of these tips may help:
    1. Follow a lower FODMAP approach to see if removing these foods settles down your discomfort. Doing this for at least 21 days and reintroducing a different food one at a time can pinpoint which one in particular might not agree with you.
    2. Introduce fermented foods as per #3e above to re-establish healthy bacteria in your gut.
    3. Replace dairy fat for alternative fat choices: nuts, seeds, avocado, coconut oil, beef tallow, lard.
    4. Ensure you chew your food properly at each meal to break it down, include lemon juice in water in the morning, and apple cider vinegar with meals to stimulate your digestive system, and consider ox bile supplement or a digestive enzyme that has lipase and/or pepsin enzymes to help you break down the fats and proteins.
  6. You’ve upped your alcohol intake because red wine and white spirits are “allowed” on LCHF. This might not even be intentional, but dropping your carbohydrate intake can lead to increased alcohol cravings, especially if your fat intake is too low, or your food intake is too low, or your stress levels are chronically too high. Or perhaps, you enjoy a moderate amount of alcohol but are continuing to gain weight on the LCHF diet.
    1. Be honest about how much you are drinking. Regularly consuming a ‘large’ as opposed to a ‘standard’ pour at the pub? Cracking open a bottle one night and then drinking to finish it off? Your plan to be alcohol free during the week has reduced to being alcohol free Monday – Wednesday? Evaluate if this is a problem for you … or not!
    2. Go alcohol free 5 nights a week, and enjoy a glass of whatever you fancy on the other nights. Ideally not those lolly water vodka mixes, but if you don’t like red wine, then choose something else. It’s not a deal breaker.
    3. Eat enough during the day so you’re not craving alcohol in the evening. This may mean including some additional starchy carbohydrate in your lunch meal – it doesn’t mean you’re not ‘low carb’ – as that in itself is a spectrum. This can really offset your cravings. Try it for 14 days to see if there is an effect.
    4. Lighten the load by choosing to have a low-fat meal if you drink. Old Skool 90s ‘dieting’ approach – those fat calories will only be missed by your adipose tissue, which is where they will be directed to when consumed with alcohol (which is processed first and foremost).
    5. Drink to ensure you are hydrated before you have your first alcoholic drink. This is like 101 really – we always drink more when we are thirsty, and then when we drink more, we become uninhibited and then all hell can break loose, right?
  7. Food timing: If you’re beginning your day with breakfast at 7am and winding down with a cup of tea and some dark chocolate at 10pm, you may be doing yourself a disservice. Eating over a time period of more than 12 hours can be deleterious to health. Recent research has found that restricting the eating period to 12 hours or less can improve insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and reduce breast cancer risk even when the calories remain the same. Anything you consume that requires processing of any sort by the liver – including black coffee or herbal teas – will begin the metabolic process. When we eat is also important as our appetite hormones are on a circadian rhythm (food being an important signalling molecule for hormones), and eating late at night – even if overall eating window is short – can be problematic for your liver. The benefits derived from intermittent fasting (such as these) can still be realised if your version of fasting includes coffee in the morning, however it appears actual fasting (nothing but water) for at least 12 hours is most beneficial for metabolic health.
    1. Try to keep within a 12 hour window for consuming anything other than water. If you struggle with remembering to do this, there are apps that can help. It’s not as hard as it might seem – if you have breakfast at 7.30am and are done eating by 7.30pm then you’ve nailed it.
  8. You’ve focused entirely on diet without giving pause to consider other aspects of your lifestyle that contribute to your wellbeing. Lack of sleep, chronically elevated stress levels, over or under activity can all contribute to some of the common complaints people attribute to diet which have nothing to do with the food.
    1. Evaluate your sleep – are you getting to bed at a reasonable hour? Able to sleep through the night with ease? Feel refreshed waking up?
    2. Evaluate your physical activity – are you doing enough? Are you doing too much?
    3. Evaluate your stress levels – are you trying to do too much? Feeling overwhelmed? Or conversely is there not enough stress to keep you stimulated and motivated?

Of course these factors contribute to how your body responds to the food, but it isn’t the food per se. As I said last week, this isn’t a definitive list, however if any of these resonate with you then try some of the ideas I’ve listed, or enlist the help of someone like me to guide you to the best approach for you.

PS: I have organised a few talks over the next couple of months to talk about making a real food (aka LCHF) approach work for you. At the moment I have:

  • Takapuna 23 March @ Streetwise Organics, Byron Ave
  • Hawkes Bay 6 April – location TBC
  • Queenstown 25 May – location TBC

…with others to come, so watch this space 🙂

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Yes, I created this pic myself 🙂

 

LCHF…why isn’t it working for me? (Part 1)

It’s about this time of year that I start seeing people come through my doors needing some minor (or major) tweaks to their LCHF eating approach. There are usually one of two scenarios.

Scenario #1: When they embarked on LCHF they saw ALL of the benefits they heard about, effortlessly shedding body fat, boundless energy (in training and afterwards), improvement in skin tone, hair condition, sleep and digestive problems. But lately the opposite is true. Despite seemingly nailing this LCHF lifestyle, they’ve noticed they are lacking energy, gaining weight (especially around the middle), latest blood tests have seen their cholesterol levels have shot up (and perhaps triglycerides), they are unable to sleep… … yet if anything, they’ve instigated (and nailed) the hacks they’ve read to optimise their LCHF eating approach. What gives??

Scenario #2: They’ve given it a good go on their own for the last 5 weeks, following it to the letter and despite this, it’s ‘not working for them.’ Worse, their husband/workmate/training partner has taken to it with ease.

Frustrating, much?

While we are all individual as to what is going to work for us, the LCHF approach is a really good one for most people, most of the time. Despite that, there are small things that can derail your best efforts to improve your diet, so I want to cover off the basic (and more nuanced) reasons people don’t fare well on a LCHF approach, and some tips on how to overcome them. I’ve ended up splitting this post into two parts as it was so long!

  1. Too low carb. The internet is a wonderful and terrible thing – information is everywhere, everyone is an expert and the version of paleo/LCHF/JERF that you’ve adopted based on what others are doing may well be too low carb for you. LCHF is a spectrum, and what is low carb for one person may well be higher carb for someone else – generally speaking, anything up to 200g of carbohydrate/day could be low carb. It all depends on context. I see a lot of people who are trying to stay strictly below 25g of carbohydrate a day – too strict (and unnecessary) for most people. Even Prof Tim Noakes, staunch advocate of a LCHF approach to eating (“banting”) has loosened up on this. The people who really benefit from a diet this low would be those embarking on it for therapeutic reasons: diabetes (both types), epilepsy, cognitive health (Alzheimer’s, for example). That’s not to say that others out there can’t make this level of carbohydrate work for them. But if you’ve noticed fat gain (especially around the middle), irritability, hormone imbalances (such as a missed menstrual period), lack of energy (past the initial phases of the LCHF approach), irregularity of bowel motions, sleeplessness – to name a few symptoms, then you may have gone too low. What to do?
    1. Track your diet for 4-5 days to get an average of the grams of carbohydrate you eat per day. If it’s on the very low end of the scale (less than 50g*, for example), then try adding back in some good quality starch to see if any of your symptoms improve. Don’t be pedantic about vegetables. Really. That includes carrots and tomatoes. To be honest, you don’t have to track your carbs if you’re not a numbers person – but it can be a good way to assess if this really is the problem. Use My Fitness Pal, Cron-o-meter, My Net Diary or Easy Diet Diary as nutritional tracking tools. (If you’re embarking on a lower carb diet, this is a good first step regardless, so you don’t make the jump from 400g a day to 60g a day).
    2. If your carbohydrate intake is in the realm of 80-100g carbohydrate, you may not be too low, it might be more of a timing problem – ensuring you have carbohydrate in the meal after a high intensity (i.e. CrossFit or F45) or long duration exercise session can help improve recovery and alleviate a lot of fatigue/irritability. If you’re struggling with insomnia, then adding in some kumara or potato into your evening meal increases production of precursors to melatonin.
    3. Is it more protein you need? Protein can help keep you fuller for longer, stabilise blood sugars (therefore has implications for focus/energy/concentration), promote recovery and help with sleep. Many people fear protein because of the potential for it to be converted to glucose in the body (via gluconeogenesis). For someone following a LCHF diet this isn’t an issue. Try upping your protein portions by 1/3 – ½ at each meal.
    4. If it’s in the initial phases, then up your intake of sodium – to levels more than you think you need. When we drop the carbohydrate content of the diet, we drop a lot of water stores too (hence a rapid loss on the scales) – this is because for every gram of carbohydrates stored, we store an additional 3g of water. Add salt to your meals, a pinch in your water bottle, make a miso drink or drink bone broth.
  2. Not low carb enough. I see this a lot. People equate carbohydrate to bread, pasta, rice and cereal and don’t think about other foods that are predominantly carbohydrate –fruit, dried fruit, ‘green smoothies’ with a fruit base, bliss balls, natural fruit and nut bars… In addition, many products are promoted as ‘sugar free’ when they contain dried fruit, maple sugar, rice malt syrup or some other type of natural sweetener. This may seem elementary to you, but I know many people are confused by this point. Regardless of what you hear, sugar IS just sugar – that one sugar is lower in fructose doesn’t mean it’s not going to influence your blood sugar levels, it’s likely to affect them more. This has to be my biggest bugbear of the ‘real food’ movement; not that these products contain sugar – but that they are marketed as not. This is no better than being told that Nutrigrain is healthy. We all know that’s not true.
    1. Again, track your numbers (as per above) via a tracking tool. A lower carbohydrate approach is not a fixed number, it’s a spectrum. But if you’re still consuming over 200g a day and not engaging in regular physical activity, then something might need to be tweaked (especially if you’re not seeing the results you’re after).
    2. Get rid of the bliss balls, the dried fruit, the paleo muffin or the smoothie from your favourite juice bar that you thought tasted suspiciously sweet for something ‘green’.
    3. Read the ingredient lists on the packages you buy. Sugar has over 56 different names. You probably don’t need to know them all, but it would be good to have an idea, right?
  3. Too many processed foods or snacks. Even if you’ve found a sweet spot with your macronutrient intake, having too many processed ‘low carb’ snacks can continue to drive your appetite hormones in a way that favours eating more than you need. Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that tells the body when we’ve had enough to eat, and is involved in the regulation of calories we burn and body fat that we store. A consequence of being over-fat is high circulating leptin levels in the bloodstream, and the brain stops reading signals sent by leptin that we’ve consumed enough food. Instead, it incorrectly believes that we are starving, thus we feel hungrier. Excess body fat increases Inflammation in the body, and is one of the drivers of leptin resistance, and processed food can drive inflammatory pathways in the body – even low carb processed food. And if you’re not over-fat? Well, vegetable oils and certain additives and preservatives found in these foods can drive inflammatory pathways in the body. In addition, an overabundance of processed flours may cause disruptions to our gut microbiome as they are easily digested, perhaps not even making it to the gut bacteria in our lower digestive tract. This can mean we are starving our good bacteria and instead feeding bacteria that release endotoxins, causing increasing inflammation. This can have a secondary effect of increasing your cholesterol level (see this post here). These foods are created in such a way to send signals to your brain’s pleasure centre and drive your appetite for more food that you just don’t need. One of the benefits of a real food approach (which naturally lowers your carbohydrate intake) is that inflammation reduces, insulin drops, gut bacteria can rebalance and the signalling pathways in the brain that regulate your appetite hormones can begin to normalise.
    1. Get rid of most foods or snacks that come in a package with ingredients you don’t recognise.
    2. Eat real food. Base your snacks around hardboiled eggs, cheese (for the dairy tolerant), vegetables, leftover meat, macadamia nuts, egg muffins.
    3. Drop the nut flours. Just because they’re low carb does not mean it’s a free for all with these processed flours.
    4. Increase foods that help balance out your fatty acid profile: more fatty fish (such as salmon, mackerel, sardines) and (grass fed) meat for omega 3 fats. Consider taking a fish oil or algae omega for those who don’t eat fish – and be picky about the supplement!
    5. Take care of your gut: consider a probiotic for 30-60 days (such as Lifestream Advanced, Inner Health Plus, Syntol or Prescript Assist) to help populate the gut with the good guys, but also keep them fed with fermented foods such as sauerkraut, raw apple cider vinegar, water kefir and an abundance of vegetable fibres.

I’ve got more – quite a bit more actually! – but will post that in Part 2 so as not to risk losing your attention ;-). These are three of the basics that people can get wrong (particularly in the initial phases), and the next post will cover some of the more nuanced reasons, and what you can do to correct them. If you’re not sure whether your LCHF diet is working for you, why not jump on and book a consultation with me? An expert eye can help take the thinking out of it for you and save a lot of stress long term.

*50g still pretty low actually! Again, it’s all context 😉

low-carb-zone

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13 tips to help you have your cake and eat it too.

Want to minimise collateral damage when it comes to fat gain over the Christmas period? It happens! While I agree with sentiments around being relaxed and not stressing too much, sometimes people benefit from having structure around how to be more relaxed … as paradoxical as that might seem. Being relaxed means you’re less likely to view a disruption to your plan as a major catastrophe to your health goals – and we all know this makes you more likely to be successful in the long run. Further, sticking to a rigid diet can increase feelings of deprivation and increase dependence – these are not attributes that turn your nutrition plan into a lifestyle.

Despite this, many clients are not happy with advice to go with the flow and ‘do what you can’ – they are after guidelines to help them… have their (Christmas) cake and eat it too (so to speak). Is this possible? Well it could be. Here are some practical things you can put into place in the lead up to and days following an event like Christmas day to minimise fat gain and help you continue to progress. I’m not suggesting these will help you lose body fat, but more give you some strategies so you feel in control of your food intake, and not the other way around.

  1. Treat the Christmas and New Year period as an opportunity to put into practice all of your healthy habits that you’ve developed, rather than an insurmountable challenge to healthy eating which can only be dealt with by pushing “pause” until January 2nd.
  2. View Christmas day as a metabolic boost. Following a lower calorie diet can downregulate your metabolism – lower calories over a longer period can reduce active thyroid hormones, increase cortisol levels and increase ghrelin levels – all of which can shift the body into energy conservation and fat storage. Therefore, it stands to reason that periodic overfeeding may help reverse this, favourably influencing hormones (such as thyroid hormones and the appetite hormone leptin) and increased energy expenditure, sending signals to the brain that it doesn’t need to downregulate metabolism and stall fat loss.
  3. Studies conducted to test the effects of exercising before or after a big meal show that exercising after a meal burned more energy, and more so than exercising beforehand. Low intensity exercise will also have an effect (compared to no exercise at all). Therefore, regardless of whether you go for a gentle walk on the beach or on Christmas day or a more vigorous game of backyard cricket, it is all beneficial. That said….
  4. …if it’s not possible to do that, then any activity is better than none! Exercising prior to the meal to deplete muscle glycogen stores and activate proteins that help deliver glucose to the muscles will result in hormonal changes favourable for fat loss. The upshot of this? More calories used to restock and less hanging around to be stored as fat. Resistance training focusing on movements that recruit both big and small muscle groups (think squats, deadlifts, shoulder press and chin ups) or high intensity interval training are your best bet: time is money this time of year and you’re going to get more bang for your buck. Of course, if you’re an endurance athlete, then doing your long run or cycle will also suffice!
  5. Take advantage of the ‘second meal effect’: the hormonal response to your Christmas dinner will be improved if the meal before was based around an abundance of non-starchy vegetables (fibre), good sources of protein and a lower overall glycaemic load. You know, the kind of meal you might normally eat. It’s easy to do this around this time of year: think barbeque meats and salads, an omelette filled with feta cheese, pumpkin and asparagus, or a quick chicken stirfry.
  6. Psyllium husk. Research has found that around 20g psyllium husk (in water) 3 hours and immediately prior to a meal can have a gastric emptying and appetite reducing effect for the next 3-6 hours. While it’s tempting to think that this could be useful for long term caloric control and subsequent fat loss, there is no good evidence to support an effect on either of these. However if the additional fibre can make you feel less hungry and you’ll be less likely to eat as much then you’ve got nothing to lose by trying it, right? (And popping this into your breakfast meal or smoothie is an easy way to boost fibre intake and enhance that ‘second meal effect’).
  7. Fill your Christmas dinner plate with protein, fat and vegetables first, then think about your starchy sweet options – again, super easy if your table is filled with lamb, turkey, ham, vegetables – and aim to finish these before contemplating the dessert table. Minimally processed foods are more filling and will produce a lower blood sugar response, and let’s face it: it’s a lot harder to overeat on the pavlova if you’ve filled your plate with foods that boost satiety. Added bonus: you’ll be less likely to fall into a food coma and more likely to have more energy for some after meal activity (see #2).
  8. Chew your food properly. This is something you should do regardless, obviously, but it’s always good to be reminded of the basics. Not only will this help you digest the nutrients more effectively (minimising the amount of discomfort you might experience after a meal), a meta-analysis of studies looking at mastication (the scientific name for chewing. I know) found chewing your mouthful of food 40 times leads to changes in your gut hormones that favour an increased feeling of fullness and subsequent decrease in food intake later in the day. In addition, chewing is related to reduced stress hormones and increased alertness. These hormonal changes will change your hormonal and potentially your emotional response to food, and the increased cognitive functioning may help you make better decisions. Overall, this may help you feel relaxed about what you eat and less likely to overeat.
  9. Have 3-5 bites of the delicious foods you have on the Christmas table. While you might think that you want to finish the Christmas pudding and the pavlova, chances are, if you’ve followed some of what I’ve suggested above, you’re not going to be that hungry anyway. Does this mean you should miss out? Of course not – however practically speaking, the level of satisfaction derived from higher fat and higher sugar foods is transient – the last bite is never as delicious as the first. I could also add here to choose between the Christmas pudding or the pavlova (as research shows an increased variety of food increases overall intake at a single meal) but I’m not convinced this is a good strategy at Christmas for some people! This could potentially lead you to feeling deprived – deprivation does no one any good at all. Instead, savour every bite of the food you want to be eating, and really enjoy it.
  10. The day after Christmas? Get up and move around. Low level activity (and structured activity) is going to make you feel physically and psychologically better. And what of the food? My best advice for anyone looking for mitigate fat gain around Christmas is to not let Christmas day turn into Christmas week. So, clearly, I’d recommend NOT finishing the trifle off (sorry to be a Christmas leftover Grinch!) You are much better off having leftover cold meat, salads, perhaps some cold jersey benny potatoes (there are health benefits of these you know!) However, if you decide you want leftover trifle want to, then own it and don’t beat yourself up for it! Nutrition goals are not gained or lost in one meal or even four meals. Consistency is key, and it’s what you achieve over the course of the year that is most important, not what you don’t do over a few days.
  11. Jump back into your usual routine ASAP – if you need help with this, head over to my website for the perfect solution to get you back on track.
  12. Don’t weigh yourself if you’re tied to the number on the scales. Overeating will increase your carbohydrate stores and water stores, so you may naturally weigh more the next day and it can take a few days to return to baseline levels. For some, it might take a few days to Intellectually you know this, but it doesn’t change how you might feel about it. If the scales are your choice of measure, then wait at least four days before jumping back on them. That said…
  13. Aim to maintain, not lose, over the next two or so weeks. This doesn’t counteract what I’ve suggested above, however if fat loss (and weight loss) is your goal, I honestly think that it’s easier on you to decide not to focus on that right now and remember it’s normal for there to be peaks and troughs. Feeling comfortable about this means you’re at a place where your attitude towards food is less about rapid weight loss (you may have been there, done that) and more about health. You can still have an overall goal of losing body fat with this mindset – and will likely be far more successful in the long run with it.
christmas-is-coming

Obligatory Christmas-related body composition picture

Do you need to snack? Here’s 31 ideas just in case (and because you’re awesome).

Sometimes you just want some new ideas. Or it’s a day where you just feel like mooching around and making a few things in the kitchen.

Snacking. As I said earlier this week on Facebook, I’m not a fan of snacking for most people as it often means they haven’t eaten properly in the previous meal, thus their need for a snack is due to roller coasting blood sugar levels which affects their stress hormones, energy and mood.

However, sometimes you just need to snack. And if you’ve eaten what you normally KNOW is a balanced meal with plenty of vegetables, a good hit of protein and some fat, but still feel hungry – then you should probably eat. And if you’re not sure what a balanced meal looks like, then check out Jamie’s blog discussing the Heart Foundation’s take on paleo – he outlines what his meals look like. Pretty simple. (And do read the whole post – it’s GREAT).

Ignoring your hunger cues is not good in the long term – yes, even if your goal right now is to lean up, if you’re eating well and exercising appropriately, then it’s likely your muscle mass is increasing and you need to feed it! Don’t use the scales as a guide to your progress – this is gravitational pull – nothing more. In the last 6 months I’ve gained 10 kg to help restore hormonal equilibrium to my over-stressed body – and while on paper it might look like a lot, visually it’s not what you would imagine it to be, as I’ve kept up weight training and gotten a lot stronger. Of course I’ve got more body fat, but I’m a lot healthier too because I’ve got more muscle; it’s had the opportunity to grow as it hasn’t been broken down to use as fuel (which can happen when you’re over-stressed). The scales tell you nothing about the composition of your body. To under fuel (even when trying to lean up) would put your body in a catabolic state, stripping muscle and potentially bone too if you go too low in calories (protein is the major component of bone, you know).

The more you listen to your body and NOT eat to a schedule, set calorie number or macro nutrient goal, the better you will be at at figuring out what your body needs. For most people, we lose this ability at a very early age, because we are told to ‘eat everything on our plates because there are starving children in Africa.’ I feel sorry for parents actually, as almost everyone I know blames their parents for a certain lack of intuition around their eating. It’s not their fault. They were told the same thing.  The good news is, though, is that it’s not irreversible. We just have to start being more aware of what we eat (processed food which is quickly digested, low in fat or protein and not satisfying), how we eat (fast, slow), where we eat (at the table? in front of the TV?) and how much attention we are actually paying to what we eat (device use, TV etc). Here’s some quick tips about mindful eating. You can retrain yourself to listen to your body. It just takes time and effort, but it will be worth it. I’ve just ordered this book too – I’ve heard great things about it and think it will be a really valuable resource.

So back to snacks. Muesli bars, low fat fruit yoghurt and snack packs of Snax crackers are going to leave you hungrier than before you ate them. They are developed to provide the sensory pleasure to your brain that makes you want to eat more (called a Bliss point). They are also high in processed carbohydrate or sugar (especially that fruit yoghurt, these new yoghurt pouches have 4 teaspoons of sugar, around 3 of them from added sugar) which are just best avoided.

Here’s 31 other ideas in case you need some more inspo.

  1. A couple of hardboiled eggs (boil a dozen at the start of the week and make your way through them. They’ll last a good 5 days unpeeled).
  2. A couple of cooked chicken drumsticks (meat that is closer to the bone is far tastier and there are far more nutrients than just pure muscle meat).
  3. Half an avocado, seasoned with salt and pepper.
  4. Around 40g cheese (not Edam. Unless you really enjoy it! Full fat dairy has many important health benefits which for some reason got overlooked with the updated food guidelines. Didn’t they read my blog?
  5. Meatballs – make these and freeze in single serve packs to have an easy go-to snack. Try my sesame miso meatballs.
  6. Almost 4 ingredient chocolate chai brownie. No sugar added at all (I promise).
  7. Raspberry coconut berry bites.
  8. Lemon coconut lunchbox treat. Again, no sugar was harmed in the making of this deliciousness.
  9. A scoop of protein powder with minimal added crap (such as Clean Lean Protein, Vital Health, Balance Natural Whey powder) + ½ cup of full fat Greek yogurt topped with berries. There are many better quality protein powders now available on the market. And while protein powders aren’t my go-to for every day eating, those people who are more active and require protein to support their lifestyle, OR for people who for some reason can’t or don’t eat animal source protein, they can be a good addition to the diet. However there are many CRAP products out there, with a lot of additional fillers, preservatives, additives for flavour, thickeners etc. Check the ingredient lists.
  10. Half an avocado with 1/2 can salmon mixed in, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
  11. Steam some greens (broccoli, brussel sprouts, beans) + drizzle with 1-2 tablespoons of olive oil or butter, add salt and pepper.
  12. Vegetable chips (bit of prep) but thin sliced beetroot, carrot, parsnip, tossed in bag with 2 Tbsp olive or coconut oil + spice of choice OR salt/pepper – baked in preheated oven of 170 deg (350 deg far) for 10-12 min.
  13. Tamari almonds from Alison’s Pantry. These are dry roasted, unlike many that you find that are roasted in vegetable oils.
  14. A handful of Pure Delish cereal (look for 10g/100g or less sugar per 100g) – I love this cereal but to be honest, as a breakfast I’m not going to recommend it as a go-to. I think the brand itself is great, and perfect for tramping/camping as an easy breakfast option. But if you want to ensure you’re not going to go hungry, start your day with a bit more protein. This would fill you up but it is easy to over eat in order to feel satisfied.
  15. The only plant that would survive a nuclear holocaust chips, like these Ceres Organics ones. Hello. Delicious, but wow – expensive! Obviously super easy to make these yourself (many delicious ways to do this).
  16. Kelp leaves flash fried in coconut oil with salt (a great source of iodine, a mineral important for our thyroid function which isn’t easily available in the food supply for people who don’t enjoy seafood). This kiwi (and local to me!) product is seriously tasty.
  17. Dried meat snacks (Biltong, bier sticks) – such as Canterbury I love Epic bars in the States but while some are made with quality NZ meat, they aren’t available here. It’s hard to come by a brand which is minimally processed, so definitely read the ingredients list. Jack Links (despite the great radio adverts which I think are awesome – is NOT a great product. When you try Canterbury V Jack Links, you can taste the difference too – alongside the addition of preservatives other than spices and salt, it is a sweeter product, with 20g of sugar per 100g product, compared to between 1-3g per 100g for Canterbury.
  18. Crackers free of grains, such as Little Bird or Flackers – or make your own. Super simple and a lot cheaper too. There are a lot of variations to these, here’s mine.
  19. Apple slices layered with a tablespoon of peanut butter + 1 tsp chia seeds mixed through
  20. Meedjol date sliced lengthways, with salted pistachio nuts stuffed inside. This is small and not at all lower carb. Delicious though.
  21. Large tomato, scoop out middle, crack an egg in, grate some parmesan cheese, bake in a 180 degree oven till egg is cooked.
  22. The Vegery snack wraps: hello delicious! These would be a great lunch on the go or for a snack. Try the apple and coffee one with some peanut butter and grated carrot. Delicious.
  23. ½ cup cottage cheese + ½ small sliced banana + a handful of walnut halves.
  24. Rice paper (which has been dunked in warm water to soften, then patted dry, wrapped around sliced avocado, a slice smoke salmon, cucumber, grated carrot, snow peas.
  25. Lightly toast a handful of sunflower seeds in a pan, then pop some into a pitted avocado half, salt + pepper. Delicious change of texture.
  26. Cheese + sliced red pepper sliced wrapped in ham that has been sliced thinly off the bone.
  27. ¼ cup hummus (ideally home-made, like Jamie’s one, he is awesome) + teaspoon of pesto in bottom of jar, carrot/cucumber sticks standing up in them. Try to choose a pesto that has an olive oil base, such as this Genose one – not one that is made on a canola oil base.
  28. Apple slices cooked in coconut oil and topped with haloumi, a’la Sarah Wilson style.
  29. A leftover sausage, split into half lengthways, with some cheese grated into it and mustard, heated in microwave.
  30. A slice of my tahini chia loaf with avocado. Yum.
  31. 2 squares of 90% Lindt with a teaspoon of almond or peanut butter. Decadent. You’re worth it.

And I’ve plenty of other ideas where these come from. If you would like more individualised help, check out my services page or sign up to my online nutrition coaching system – it’s free for 28 days for you to try!

snack

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