Holiday weight gain? Read this.

Easter and Anzac has meant that, for many, it’s enough for more than just a mini-break. And who doesn’t love a holiday? A break away from early alarm clocks, work and household chores. When out of your own space you’re forced to leave behind the normal routines that are well established in everyday life, which is obviously why we come back feeling refreshed and ready to get back into it. The problem, though, is that many people panic about getting out of routine with their food and exercise – what if that 10 days in Fiji goes and undoes the last three months of hard work and they end up gaining weight?

Well, it won’t. Why?

1. You are a LOT more active on holiday compared to real life: driving to work and sitting in an office does not afford the same opportunity to be as active as sight-seeing does. I clocked up almost double the number of steps as I normally would when I was away. Even on days we didn’t run, relying on both public transport and my feet to see a city racked up enough steps so I was regularly doing 23,000 or more each day. However, if you’re a lounge-around-the-pool kind of vacationer, if you had a hit out in the hotel gym, you can avoid weight gain for a short term holiday in the face of a calorie excess.

2. You sleep more: lack of sleep will drive up insulin and cortisol levels and create a hormonal environment that is unfavourable for fat loss. Even if you have the perfect diet (if there is such a thing), no amount of calorie counting, carb watching, or protein eating will make up for the string of 5-6 hours a night you manage during the week when work, exercise and home duties take up so much time, you stay up later than you know you should just to enjoy a little time out.

3. You’re generally more relaxed. The everyday stress created by school pick-ups, work deadlines and weekend sport might be ‘normal’ life, but don’t underestimate the effect this can have on your ability to lose weight. While we may not know the underlying mechanisms, like the effects of sleep deprivation, a chronic overload of stress will increase hormones responsible for fat gain regardless of what you eat or how much exercise you do. In fact, for some, their normal stress relief of going for a run or doing an F45 class will only add to the stress bucket, further exacerbating a weight loss stall. And, when stressed, we often reach for food that is high in calories, low in nutrients.

What if it does?

If you were maintaining or losing weight prior to going away on holiday, then that tells me you’ve got the tools necessary to help you refocus on an eating style and exercise routine that will easily shed any fat gain that is the result of too many cocktails by the pool.

Actual fat gain will be quite minimal, and pretty easy to shift – potentially easier than what you were finding before your holiday. The additional calories eaten on holiday aren’t all stored as fat (at all!) We restock depleted glycogen, and for some, short term overfeeding  increases resting metabolic rate in response to increased food (as many of the overfeeding studies conducted under laboratory conditions have found). Even if you have a predisposition for weight gain, the amount of weight you can is usually far less than the excess calories eaten would predict.

However, for those panicking about the additional fat gain (if any):

1. Up the protein intake. This will help reduce any carb-related cravings from too many pancakes/baked goods/fat chips. Aim for foods that will provide 30g of protein per meal (as an example, a 150g beef steak has about 37g of protein, 3 large eggs around 24g of protein). This will help fill you up and regulate blood sugar, preventing any dip in energy that might be exacerbated by lack of sleep or jetlag. Combined with strategies listed below, it’s a recipe for fat loss.

2. Lay off the alcohol. I tend to drink a bit more wine and beer when on holiday. Despite that I don’t drink any more than 1-2 glasses, it is more than what I’d normally drink in ‘real life’. If you’re like me, then take a break for a week or two  – not a long time, but enough to help get over my post-holiday blues (alcohol is a depressant after all) and to ‘break the habit’ as it were.

3. Drop back the fat intake – if you’ve gained excess body fat, then we want your body to tap into this (potentially) accessible fuel source – this obviously requires a calorie deficit. There is no need to seek out ‘low fat’ foods or avoid foods that naturally contain fat (i.e. egg yolks), however reducing down the amount of added fat to meals (via sauces, dressings, cooking oils, nut butters etc) will help reduce the calorie content of your diet with minimal effort.

4. Drop back the carbohydrate intake – some people benefit from doing a 21 day low (er than normal) carbohydrate diet. I know what you’re thinking – if I drop the fat AND the carbs, what do I eat? I’m talking short-term here – you base your meals around protein and titrate fat and carbohydrate according to that. If you know you feel better with a bit of carbohydrate in your diet, that’s no issue – just make it good quality (i.e. kumara, potato) and make it a moderate serving. However, ample amounts of even low sugar carbohydrate (like rice, pasta, bread etc) will make it more difficult to shift.

5. Include plenty of vegetables – base your meals around these. The prebiotic fibre can help improve the gut environment after a week or more of too much fried foods (though that cheese hoagie was delicious) and too much alcohol. Splashing raw apple cider vinegar (ACV) on steamed vegetables ups the taste factor and helps reduce post-prandial (post-meal) blood sugar, making you less likely to search for something sweet. In addition, you can go for gold on most non-starchy vegetables, so fill your plate to help fill you up.

6. Lift weights. Heavy ones. If you don’t have access to a gym then even body weight exercises (such as press-ups, squats, lunges) if not doing them, will create stress to help you build muscle. I’m not suggesting you avoid lacing up for your long run – I’m a long-distance runner after all! –  resistance training, though, is metabolically demanding in the short term, and in the long term will preserve your resting metabolic rate to allow you to burn fat in everyday life. Plus, you’ll improve strength. Bonus.

7. Consider fasting. Be it the 5:2 protocol that I utilise in my fat-loss plans, a 16:8 protocol that is popular (i.e. fast from 8pm to 12pm the next day, or Super-fasting as per the Schofield/Zinn protocol outlined in What the Fast, it’s consistently found to improve metabolic health markers and can reduce calorie intake to elicit a fat-loss response. Note: I’m not talking about some excessive ‘not going to eat till Friday’ type fast. But shorten that eating window.

8. Get plenty of sleep – try to get back into a 7-8h per night habit with this one and be disciplined about it, for reasons I outlined above.

And, finally (and most importantly), does it matter? I mean, does it truly matter that you come back from an awesome time away with a couple of additional kilograms? Part of the beauty of a holiday is leaving behind all of the routines of your day to day life, including exercise and your normal foods for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Many of us need a mental break almost as much as a physical one, and this includes a break from your usual diet and exercise regime. You will come back feeling refreshed and ready to embrace these with renewed energy (or being in a mindset of change for the better, if that is more appropriate).

egggs

LCHF and IF for the female endurance athlete (IMHO).

Following on from the couple of blogs I wrote about Dan’s LCHF athlete lifestyle, I got a lot of messages from women regarding my opinion of it for the female endurance athlete. Great question, especially as – if you look at social media – there are nutritionists who warn against the danger of LCHF (and intermittent fasting) for women, to the point that the blanket statement is that it is harmful and not to be undertaken. Whilst it is hard to be objective in the nutrition space – all of us influenced to some degree by our own experiences – the low carbohydrate and fasting space seems to bring with it its own special degree of hysteria. The prevailing message is that both low carbohydrate diets and fasting is too stressful on the endocrine system of females (which regulates hormones) and causes a reduction in metabolism and reproductive potential. Thus, it is to be avoided at all costs. This point of view may be drawn from clinical experience of the practitioner and be dependent on the type of client they see. If their target audience are women who have struggled with maintaining a healthy weight and have problems with eating enough, then the opinion of the practitioner could well be influenced by this (and is entirely sensible!) Likewise, I see many women who’s hormones benefit from periods of intermittent fasting while utilising a LCHF protocol. What we see in clinic will dictate our points of view, regardless of how objective we try to be.

I have in the past written about the negative impact of fasting and calorie restriction on the expression of genes that regulate kisspeptin in the body, a hormone involved in our reproductive cycle. However I will point out that the effects seen in studies conducted in rodents may be more dramatic than if they were carried out as clinical trials in humans. Rodents have a much faster metabolism, thus a 24h fast for a mouse is equivalent to a 3 day fast in humans. Likewise, chronic caloric restriction over a week, where the mice lose close to a quarter of their body weight (and which is thought to be responsible for the downregulation of the kisspeptin receptors that result in negative effects) may be equivalent to 12 or more weeks. Rodent models in science are great for illustrating potential mechanisms, but can never be viewed as hard data as it pertains to humans.

Alongside any scientific data that exists, I think it’s important to step back and consider perspective here. What we should all be aware of is that there is no one right dietary approach for everyone, and often there is no one dietary approach to suit someone for the rest of their lives. As things change, so do our nutritional requirements. Low carbohydrate diet and intermittent fasting is not exempt from this – therefore to say that it is not suitable for any woman is, quite frankly, erroneous and misrepresents what we see in the literature and what we see clinically. While certainly a vast majority of the studies investigating lower carbohydrate diets have been conducted in males, there are studies showing a positive impact for overweight women with infertility. Further, it is accepted best practice to include periods of low glycogen availability in the training schedules of athletes. Even in the researchers who err on the side of pro-carbohydrate diets recommend cycling carbohydrate intake to be sometimes low, and sometimes high, to upregulate fat oxidation pathways that allow the athlete to become more efficient at burning fat. To state that no female athlete should start an exercise session in a fasted state goes against current best practice for endurance performance.

Possibly the negative impacts of fasting and low carbohdyrate diets are not about the fasting period or the carbohydrate content – it’s much more likely to represent chronic underfuelling – i.e. a lack of calories over an extended period of time, with no thought given to cycling of both energy intake and/or macronutrients. It’s just low, full stop. That’s why it is important to work with an experienced sports nutrition practitioner (like me, Kaytee Boyd, Caryn Zinn as some top picks) to ensure these training tactics are used to the advantage of the athlete in a training cycle, not to the detriment of them.

Don’t misread this as a recommendation to do all sessions in a fasted state, to undergo an intermittent fasting protocol that involves skipping breakfast every day of the week, or that everyone should adhere to a very low carbohydrate approach. If you’ve read any of my information (or followed anything I’ve suggested) then you’ll know this isn’t the case. The point of this blog is to remember that there is no one right dietary approach for everyone, and that if you’re successfully adhering to a lower carbohydrate diet with periods of intermittent fasting and feel it’s working well for you (ie no sleep, hormone, training or recovery problems), don’t be concerned with the rhetoric that exists regarding the harmful nature of this. You are your own best investigator when it comes to your nutrition, and your experience is the most important data when it comes to you.

Intermittent fasting

Post on IF, cue picture of empty plate with clock. #standard (PC http://www.stack.com)

The Plews on racing LCHF

Last week I detailed Kona Ironman age-group champion Dan Plews’ daily and training nutrition using a LCHF approach. How does this change in the lead up to an event, and what does he do on race day?

Like conventional sports nutrition principles, there is somewhat of a carbohydrate loading phase pre-race. This isn’t the 500-600g of carbohydrate that is recommended for most athletes in the three days before (which generally leaves an athlete feeling lethargic and bloated), however it is more than he would generally eat. Don’t forget that tapering for a race is, in effect, carbo loading, as the muscle glycogen stores are not depleted during training and it allows them the chance to be replenished and not in the deficit they normally are. Based on Rowlands paper which showed that a higher fat diet with a preload of carbohydrates, he’s dialled in his approach that Dan now feels works really well for him. He lifts his carbohydrate intake from the 80-100g he typically eats in the days prior. On the Wednesday (for a Saturday race), he will include additional potato or sweet potato in his evening meal, taking him to ~125g carbs per day. This increases to ~175g per day on Thursday and Friday (the two days before the race) – including fruit alongside the potato or sweet potato. In addition, he makes sure snacks etc on hand are low carbohydrate so  not to be caught out during the lead up period with having to rely on the petrol station or four square options. If you do have to rely on these, and are looking for lower carbohydrate, then biltong, cheese snacks, even lower carbohydrate protein bars can be good stop gaps. On race morning before Dan’s Kona race he opted for was porridge: oats with a bit of Super Starch added, which is a slow release carbohydrate to not inhibit fat burning, and is a higher molecular weight carbohydrate, so it is easier to digest.

During the race:

Despite research studies in this area using a ‘train low glycogen, race low glycogen’ model to determine the efficacy of a LCHF approach for sports performance, in practice Dan follows what practitioners advocate: a ‘train low, race high’ model. Ideally, the train low approach has enabled you to increase your efficiency to burn fat as a fuel source in addition to using carbohydrate that you have stored or take on board, thus maximising the amount of fuel you have available. Dan takes in around 50g carbohydrate per hour;  because he is very efficient at burning fat, he doesn’t need as much carbohydrate as he would otherwise. A real benefit of this is that it minimises the likelihood of gut issues many endurance athletes experience during a long event – the more carbohydrate fuel you have to take on board, the more opportunity there is to get the dose wrong. Importantly though, the more fatigued you become, the more your body will divert blood supply away from the gut to the muscles, and thus impacting on your ability to digest the fuel.  During Kona Dan used energy blocks with gels on the bike, and a couple of gels with some swigs of sports drink or coke during the run. His paper Different Horses on the Same Courses outlines how to take this individualistic approach to fuelling, as will his online course that you can sign up to by clicking here.

Finally, post-race, Dan gets back on board the LCHF approach fairly swiftly, as he has seen the impact that a higher carbohydrate fuelling day has on his blood glucose level across the course of the following week. It certainly doesn’t reduce down to normal levels the day after, and it’s likely that inflammation and muscle damage impacts on this too. Your best bet is to (as soon as possible) get back to your LCHF diet and help your recovery process.

LCHF for the top end:

Whilst LCHF is increasingly more accepted in the endurance space as part of the approach, what about at that top end – does it limit performance there? There is very little quality research on this, however Dan’s research group found that there was no detriment to perform high intensity intervals (as I blogged about here), but the jury is definitely out on this point and I wonder if, like many things, it is individual. A person’s ability to metabolise fat as a fuel source and use it at a higher intensity is trainable for sure (that’s what fat adaptation is all about), but there could be individuals who are less able to produce ketones to be used for energy – this is speculation though on my part. Yes, there is a down regulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase which helps turn stored carbohydrate into glucose for energy, however the importance of this is questionable given the increased availability of fat for fuel, and there may be other enzymes upregulated to counteract this change in the fuel use. A potential way around this issue (and to ensure glucose metabolism is continued on your LCHF approach) is to do higher intensity efforts in training that force liver to convert glycogen to glucose – thus keeping glucose oxidation pathways high. I’m also beginning to recommend that people take on a small amount of glucose pre-high intensity sessions if they are beginning the fat adaptation phase during a training cycle that incorporates higher intensity efforts. Ideally your fat adaptation phase will occur during base training when we can keep intensity low. But that isn’t always possible. Fifteen-20g glucose prior to training for these high intensity sessions can keep output high but is unlikely to be enough to “ruin” your adaptation process. Again, there is no research behind these numbers, but from a practice perspective I’ve seen this work well.

Finally, you know I’m an advocate of ketones to help support training whilst lower carbohydrate, and it certainly has helped me and many of my clients. We don’t at this point know enough about ketone utilisation in the body and whether taking exogenous ketones downregulates the body’s ability to produce them. This is an emerging field we are looking at with interest with regards to dosage, timing, type of ketone supplement etc. There has been decades of research into carbohydrate as a performance enhancer, and we can probably expect that it will take a few years of research for these questions to be answered in the science research space. Trying them yourself is likely the best approach to see how they impact your own performance (and I can help you with that).

1162_032201

Plews at Kona (PC http://www.trizone.com.au)

Exercise for longevity – is there a best approach?

The older I get, the more I am interested in the effects of ageing on our overall health span. Ageing is unavoidable, it happens to the best of us. Listed below are some of the physiological and biological changes that can occur the older we become:

  1. Insulin resistance – this is in healthy weight older adults also, with research showing there is more peripheral insulin resistance compared to a younger population (an inability to dispose of glucose into the tissue).
  2. Decreased availability of anabolic hormones, and increased frailty with lower levels of hormones
  3. Increased anabolic resistance, so not only is there a decrease in the hormones that signal tissue growth, the muscle tissue is less responsive to the stimulus of amino acids (protein) and exercise, and there is less muscle protein synthesis in comparison to breakdown.
  4. Greater protein requirements for the same relative gains in muscle, strength and function compared to a younger population
  5. Decreased motor neuron function, therefore less neural signalling to muscle tissues and reduced motor function.
  6. Increased intracellular oxidative stress, causing inflammation and reduced cell functioning
  7. Reduction in satellite (stem) cells numbers and regenerative capacity – these cells are essential for the maintenance and repair tissues in normal physiological processes or in response to muscle damage/trauma.
  8. Elevated myostatin signalling, a protein that blocks our ability to build muscle
  9. Increased chronic inflammation (also known as inflamm-aging)
  10. Changes in autophagy, where ageing reduces our ability to clear out damaged DNA
  11. Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities, where we can’t utilise energy metabolites as effectively to fuel mitochondria
  12. Reduced ability to be physically active (due to many of the reasons listed above)

Clearly, these are not all inevitable. However, it is a long, daunting, and rather depressing list of what can occur as we age – and we are an ageing population. There is no doubt that if we don’t look after this body we have got, then we really are staring down the barrel of a loaded gun.

The list above describes many of the mechanisms to explain the loss of muscle mass and function. It’s not about being ripped or having gainz, it’s about having proper functioning of the muscle so it can work effectively in our older years – this is what is shown to have the most positive impact on our cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems.

Inactivity is the broader environmental issue that contributes substantially to the physiological issues I have mentioned above. We need to be active – in everyday life, and with some structured activity too. Hanging out washing and housework isn’t going to cut it, I’m afraid. I see a lot of people who have this idea that you don’t need to exercise in order to lose weight, and you can do it solely on diet alone. This is true, of course, but when you embark on any weight loss plan that restricts calories (i.e. any weight loss plan that is out there), then you will lose both fat weight and muscle mass – lowering your overall metabolic rate along with it. This is one of the reasons why weight regain is so prevalent. However the powerful combination of diet plus exercise helps sustainable weight loss. And exercise isn’t just moving around the house, doing chores – this should just be part of everyday living. Data looking at the effects of exercise show that resistance training confers benefits over and above what we would see if we were just doing 30 minutes of cardio-based exercise per day, something that many of us maintain, but it doesn’t offer the same benefits.

The right type and duration of exercise:

The challenge is to get people exercising. And this is especially so for those who read what I have said above, and think that – on top of 30 minutes of aerobic training they don’t have time to do, they need to then put some resistance (or weight) training in.

This is not a call to encourage you to find an additional 3 hours in your week, though. In fact, a study that is about to be published (I heard about it on STEM talk) suggests that just 72 minutes a week in total is enough to help many of the conditions associated with ageing and poor health that I’ve mentioned above. Egan and colleagues found a combination of both resistance and cardiovascular exercise in a circuit-type setting for adults over 65 years just three times a week for 24 minutes increased walking speed, leg strength and reduced trunk fat. These measures speak to better muscular function, obviously increased strength, and will help reduce metabolic health risk. The improvements were more potent in this combined group than either resistance training or aerobic training for the same duration. It wasn’t olymic lifting from the sounds of it,  but it also wasn’t lifting pink dumbbells, either.

So this was a very long preamble to the main message: if you are currently NOT exercising, then please start. While there are modalities that are better than others, seriously, anything will be better than nothing. The study I talked about is in older adults, you likely don’t need me to tell you that any age you start is obviously better than not starting at all. AND the earlier you start, the better the overall health outcomes.

There is often an argument as to which is best; exercise or diet for improving health. That’s a weird argument to my mind. Both are important and should be prioritised if you want more life in the years you’ve got left.

stronger-effect-of-resistance-training-when-combined-with-protein-supplementation

One of the only pics I could find that didn’t involve pink dumbbells. (PC: https://www.frieslandcampinainstitute.com/)

Food rules.

I’m all for flexibility when it comes to what people eat. Labels like ‘vegan’, ‘paleo’, ‘keto’ for a lot of people aren’t particularly useful (even when self-imposed) if that means the structure of their food intake is tied up into the ‘rules’ of that particular diet. People panic when they are out of their own food environment and unable to eat according to the rules of their dietary ethos. While there are those who intuitively know they don’t need to rigidly eat the same foods or meals to be able to progress towards their health goals, this isn’t a widely appreciated concept. For some, diet ‘rules’ can create a certain degree of neuroticism around food; people argue it is a form of orthorexia at its worse – I’m not sure I agree with that, given the complexities associated with diagnosed eating disorders. Regardless, if the anxiety around food exists, it can lead the person to turn down invitations where their dietary rules will not be able to be adhered to, thus becoming socially isolated from their normal circle of friends. Or they may still attend with the intention not to eat, only to ‘cave in’; one small snack becomes a bit of a binge-fest because they have ‘blown it all.’ Both of these situations can make a person feel pretty terrible, and do nothing for their self-esteem.  You can see why, then, there are people who are adamantly against ‘rules’ around food.

However, I don’t agree that there shouldn’t be any structure around what, how, and when a person eats.  I think you’ll know I’m not suggesting this structure should equate specifically to a dogmatic dietary regime, such as only eating ‘paleo’ or ‘raw vegan’. I’m talking about rules that take the decision making out of some pretty common every day food experiences. Let’s face it, most people have a lot going on in their lives – we make 35,000 decisions per day (apparently!), 200 of them are food-related, though we are conscious of about 12-15 of them. Many people don’t have the bandwidth to be directly  making decisions about what to eat day-in, day-out (hence food plans like mine are awesome, btw). That’s what makes it so easy to ‘succumb’ to takeaways at the end of the day (I say ‘succumb’ as I know many people think it’s lack of willpower. Well, no, it’s more decision fatigue than anything else). Dogma around diet is, after all, the appeal of following it – someone else has deemed what you can eat and what you can’t. This takes the thinking out of it and works perfectly fine… until it doesn’t. And it doesn’t take long for it to start causing more headaches than not. The type of rules, then, that I’m thinking about are those which are akin to brushing your teeth. You just do them, they are non-negotiable. Once you get into the habit of them, you don’t even have the think about it.

The types of rules I’m thinking about include:

  1. Never eat standing up (therefore omitting mindless snacking).
  2. Brush your teeth after dinner (to avoid snacking later in the evening).
  3. Have at least one serve of vegetables at breakfast, and 2-3 at lunch and dinner.*
  4. Put all junk food in the house in an opaque container and keep high up in the pantry, so they aren’t having to see it every time they open the cupboard to prepare meals (out of sight, out of mind).
  5. Choose a protein choice (meat, eggs, fish) and vegetables first when eating a meal out, and then (if still hungry), choose something else. This will fill you up, so there is less room for other foods that are easy to overeat.
  6. Order dressings and sauces on the side (so you can control how much you use).

Instead of feeling anxious about having to decide what to eat, then constantly second-guessing what to do, simple guidelines like these can help you make better decisions in any context. They take the thinking out of it, therefore less energy is wasted and they aren’t constantly ruminating about what to eat. This creates less anxiety and neuroticism, and people can feel empowered and confident in their food decisions.  It’s less about the availability of specific food choices and more about way food is eaten, the environment it is eaten in, and the type of food. You don’t need to be perfect to be awesome, you just need to be consistent, and consistently approaching food in the same way (not deciding that you’ve ‘blown it all, so you’ll binge’ whenever you make a choice not deemed ‘suitable’ as part of your dietary regime).

From clinical experience, I find most people respond well to strategies such as those mentioned above.

One Simple Health Rule copy

If only it were this simple. (PC: theironyou.com)

Hungry?

One of the things that clients fear most is being hungry. When I talk to some of them about removing snacks and eating just three times a day (or 1-2 times, depending on their individual plan), there is a look of fear that comes into their eyes. For others, though, they almost relish the opportunity to feel hungry because it has been forever since they’ve felt the grumbling in their stomach that tells them they are ready for food. This doesn’t, however, mean that they never eat! But it does affect their enjoyment of food – and, let’s face it, food is not only fuel, but it is one of life’s pleasures. One that, for many, they’ve denied themselves the opportunity to experience.

Which camp do you fall into, why do you feel that way, and how do you change your mindset around hunger (if you need to?)

Why do you fear being hungry?

In my clinical experience there are two main reasons why people are scared to be hungry. Firstly, hunger is not actually just felt in your stomach, your entire being experiences it. If your hunger comes on suddenly and without warning (you go from feeling fine to being ravenous), if it changes your physical state (ie you start feeling light headed, lacking in energy, maybe even start sweating) and your emotional state (you feel irrationally angry, sad or conversely, on something of a high before a big energy crash), then our emotion around being hungry can be one of fear. No-one likes being shunted from one emotional state to another, particularly if it comes completely without warning, which is often the case in this type of scenario. The fear of over-eating in response to this physiological and emotional state is the second reason for being scared to be hungry. When they do finally get to eat, they don’t trust they will make good decisions around food, and thus starts a (sometimes perpetual) cycle of fear, eating, self-punishment, eating….

What gives? This kind of hunger isn’t hunger at all – it’s blood sugar. Whenever we eat too little, or too little of nutrients that regulate our appetite hormones (nutrients such as protein, fibre and fat) at a meal, it is going to cause our blood sugar to drop and – in some instances – drop too rapidly. This response from our blood sugar sends an alarm signal to our brain that we are in danger (or potential danger) of having no fuel on board. In evolutionary times, this could have meant almost certain death: we wouldn’t have fuel to either fight for our life or run for our life. There may be no sabre-tooth tigers lurking around in everyday life now, but our body’s genetic blueprint hasn’t changed in that regard. Those ringing alarm bells drive us to search for food and do it fast – hence the rapid change in our physical and emotional state. The type of food our brain tells us to seek out is that which is going to deliver quick energy – sweet or starchy food. That is what will bring our blood sugar back to within normal range and get us out of the state of emergency our brain was experiencing. The problem is, though, is that the type of food we go for is the same as what got us into the blood sugar position in the first place.

No wonder you are scared to be hungry, and you feel you can’t trust yourself around food. While one option is to eat frequently (thus, almost to prevent being hungry), this isn’t the best approach. Every time you eat, you send signals to your body that you’ve taken on board fuel, therefore causing changes in your blood sugar levels and creating a hormonal environment that is more favourable to fat gain. In addition, it’s likely the types of food you are snacking on are those which created this blood sugar problem in the first instance (this is not your fault! We’ll blame the 80s-early 2000s for that, and the message to eat ‘six small meals a day’*). They may not be high in free sugar (ie ‘junk’ foods), but they could well be low in fat, fibre or protein, all potent regulators of our blood sugar. Cue the creation of the same problem as if you had just eaten a high sugar snack. Your body doesn’t know the difference without a good amount of the aforementioned nutrients to go alongside it.

If not ‘eat more often’, then what? Eat more but eat less often. The main driver of this is fluctuating blood sugar levels, therefore to combat this we need to fill up more at our meal times (be it 1, 2 or 3 times per day) to avoid a dramatic drop in them. The approach to eating I advise takes care of that for you. As I said, this physiological response is because you’ve eaten too little (or too little of the right** foods) in the first place. Your blood sugars won’t rise to the same extent, will be buffered by the additional protein, fibre and fat, so will decrease at a far slower rate, thus there will be no alarm bells ringing, and no stress response. Hunger will come on gradually (perhaps 4 hours after a meal) and, if you were called into a meeting, you would be able to concentrate on the situation at hand, rather than be distracted, irritated or hangry.

And what if you fall into the other camp, when you are never hungry? The main reason for this is often due to the first scenario – you are pre-emptively eating, thus never allowing yourself the opportunity to digest food and wait for your body to send signals to your brain that you are hungry. More often than not, this is because you are scared to be hungry (so, back to the first reason then). However, there is also another factor I see that impacts on appetite – and it is stress. If you are in an elevated state of ‘doing’, and are constantly on the move, stress hormones can suppress your appetite – therefore eating is somewhat of a chore, something that you feel you should do and therefore you don’t enjoy it. Conversely, you don’t eat which leads you to overeating later in the day when you are finally able to relax. Interestingly, a lot of clients report that, in both scenarios I have described, they continue to eat after having a normal (or larger) size meal because they are not satisfied.  This is usually despite the fact that physically they feel full, but emotionally they are somewhat empty. If you don’t take the time to enjoy your food (and it’s something you derive pleasure from) then no amount of additional food at this time is going to make you feel better. In fact, most people report feeling worse. Taking the time to sit down and enjoy your food helps you to listen to your body and eat when you are truly hungry.

*like anyone knew what six small meals a day were – most examples were enough to feed a 110 kg body builder, not a person trying to maintain a size they felt comfortable at.

**foods higher in protein, fibre, with added fat for satiety.

 

very-hungry-caterpillar-teaching-plan-lesson-plan-16-9

This caterpillar was, in fact, very hungry. (PC: scholastic.com)

Overcoming stumbling blocks on a ketogenic diet: a case study

I had a client contact me for an email consultation this week. She was frustrated as, despite following a ketogenic diet (where carbs are restricted to 30g or below, over 70% of calories should come from fat, and protein is moderated), she was unable to get into ketosis.

I had a look at her food diary and could quite quickly see where I thought she could change things to help enhance her ketogenic approach. With her blessing, she’s allowed me to share this with a wider audience. Like many things, if one person is having challenges finding the right balance in their diet, there are likely many more people doing very similar things and potentially experiencing the same frustrations.  I focused on some of the main issues I saw.

You’ll notice there are foods that don’t align with ketogenic diets OR would be included in any diet for someone wanting to shed fat. We (the client and I) spoke on that in general, as clearly she knows this (i.e. cheesecake). The points I focused on were those that can trip people up that she might not be aware of. I’ve screenshot her food diary, and then my comments are below.

Her diet:

​​​​​​

Major points – unable to get into ketosis despite sticking to under 30g carbohydrate per day. This is measured by a blood ketone meter, and she wondered if she needed to add more fat to do this. Her overall goal is weight loss.

The thing with weight loss and the ketogenic diet, if you follow the advice from Phinney and Volek, pioneers of the ketogenic diet space, part of the energy your body needs to consume should come from your own fat stores, and not be provided for by diet. It’s a common misconception, as I see many people embark on a ketogenic diet for fat loss purposes but the opposite occurs – they gain weight. A common strategy at this point is to further reduce carbohydrate intake and bump up the fat. However, this will often further exacerbate weight gain (and frustration around the approach). Worst case scenario here is when the frustration leads to ‘to hell with it’ and that low carb diet is supplemented with all manner of processed refined carb junk food because ‘what’s the point? I can’t do this anyway, I’m useless and it’s not working for me.’ Clearly the end result of this self-punishment is further fat gain, some horrible carb cravings and a bad psychological state. Needless to say, I don’t think adding in more fat is the answer in this instance (and for this client), however I do think that tweaking what she is already doing is going to help.

It’s also good to remember that blood ketones aren’t the be all and end all – these indicate ketones in your bloodstream but sometimes, when these are low, this just means we are using them for energy – which is what you want! This is more likely to be the case in an athlete rather than anyone who is generally just active. In this case example,  I think the diet is the main reason for her not being in ketosis, rather than that the client is using ketones efficiently. However,  it is worth remembering that if you are following a ketogenic diet and are not seeing the expected results on the blood ketone meter.

Finally (and something I mentioned to the client) you don’t need a ketogenic diet to successfully lose weight, and sometimes focusing instead on the pointers I give at the end, regardless of ketosis, will give the same end result. Something like my online menu planner and individualised nutrition coaching. However, I would recommend in that instance to up the protein (double the recommendation I give you) and drop back the fat intake, as people often find that far more satisfying and easier to adhere to – which ultimately is THE most important thing with any dietary approach.

Key issues I picked up:

  • Too much protein in one sitting/in general
  • Processed foods
  • Dairy
  • Unintentional free sugar

1.Milk –  both the sugar in a cup of milk and the protein (whey) will raise insulin levels, thus put you out of ketosis. This is true of skim and standard milk.

2. Protein cookies: the type of sweetener/fibre used to make it a lower carb item can also spike insulin. For some people it is definitely a dose response thing going on – they can eat ½ cookie no problem, but a whole one will kick them out of ketosis. For any items like these, and if you do have blood glucose or blood ketone meters, it can be good to get a reading after a certain dose to see what effect they have for you. At any rate, highly processed goods can still negatively impact on blood sugar and appetite regulation in the absence of them being carb-based.

3. Coconut water – contains 3g sugar per 100ml or thereabouts. Any amount of free sugar in the diet is going to impact pretty quickly on your blood sugar levels if you haven’t just finished exercising, and kick you out of ketosis. The types of carbs you want to be having in your diet are specifically non-starchy carbohydrates -the majority of any carb sources coming from green leafy vegetables, other colour vegetables, perhaps some pumpkin/carrot depending on their effects on your blood sugar.

4. Grapes: any fruit is going to impact on your blood sugar levels, and particularly grapes – even if you stick within your limit of carbohydrate, the sugar from these are going to hit your bloodstream pretty quickly and cause an insulin response, thereby lowering ketones, especially if eaten outside of a meal that contains fat and/or protein (both of which slow down the glucose from hitting the blood stream). Fruit is typically best avoided on a ketogenic diet, aside from lemons, grapefruit, some berries.

5. Protein content of meals: for most, these need to be lower unless an individual is athletic. If struggling with getting into ketosis, it can be good to lower protein consistently to 1g/kg ideal body weight. For this particular client, this is 65g per day. Many days are consistently above this. In addition, the amount of protein in any one meal makes a difference – ideally, not more than 30g protein in any one sitting and, for you, likely 20g in a meal. This is obviously going to differ from person to person – as mentioned, athletes who have a greater energy output can generally get away with more protein (and more carbohdyrate) compared to a person who is sedentary or just lightly active.

6. Timing of food: eating within a restricted window (and not eating later in the evening) can help a ketogenic diet – our liver’s ability to metabolise carbohydrate is dictated in part by a ciracadian rhythm;  we are naturally more carbohydrate sensitive in the AM, less so in the PM, so carbs are likely to spike insulin more in the evening. In addition, fasting naturally upregulates ketone production and can help accelerated ketosis. Further, snacking can (for some) keep them from being out of ketosis, so 3 meals, or 2 meals plus a snack is recommended.

Key recommendations:

1. Drop protein down in each of the meals so you are averaging approximately 20-25g at meals.

2. Time any foods that have a greater amount of carbohydrate in them for after exercise (ie lower sugar fruit, or nuts that have a higher carb count such as cashews). The body doesn’t need to rely on just the action of insulin to deliver carbohydrates to cells in this instance, as we have receptors called GLUT-4 receptors in our muscles and in adipose tissue that can take up carbohydate and are activated post-exercise. Remember, an increase in insulin suppresses the production of free fatty acids, the precursors to ketone bodies.

3. Engage in exercise to help upregulate ketone production – aerobic/weight training.

4. Fasting for 14h at a time to help body produce ketones. Now for women, fasting can be a great tool, but can also backfire (read more about that here). Generally speaking, the fasting approach can be something that is incorporated 1-2 x per week if fat loss is a goal, and on other days, opt for a 12h window between dinner one night and breakfast the next day. The most important thing, though, is to be aware of negative changes to energy, how you feel, mood and sleep patterns – all underlying signs of a stress response that you might not be able to cope with.

5. Focus on diet quality – so the carbs, protein, fats are coming from whole foods and not processed or snack foods – ie protein cookies, fat bombs etc

6. Remove drinks / foods that contain easily digested carbs even if they fall within the carb count for the day. You’ll feel far more satisfied (and it is far more nutritious) to get your carbohydrates from green leafy vegetables which also contains a good amount of fibre.

7. Dairy – stick to hard cheeses and forgo the softer cheese/milk.

These are just some pointers from this client’s diet; another practitioner may pick up others. I will reiterate my point, however, in that a ketogenic diet, when done purely for weight loss, isn’t always the best approach and, for alot of people, unsustainable and too much like hard work. If you’re struggling to get the balance right and not seeing the results, then there are definitely other alternatives out there – one which will fit your lifestyle, eating behaviour, budget and allow you to lose weight with far less effort. It’s adherence that is key. Let me help you with that.

Selection of healthy fat sources

Delicious, nutritious food regardless of your dietary approach.

My diet approach: less rigidity and more ‘real life’

A couple of comments on my Facebook page, a comment from a client that she wasn’t  ‘my perfect client’, and a post from one of my good nutritionist friends inspired me to have a bit of a think about how I approach nutrition, or the expectations that others have of my nutrition approach.

Whenever I put something out on social media, people will read from it what they will – I want them to comment and engage (why else would I put a post up?)  One of these was a comment I got after posting a recipe up on my page. Someone commented that she was very concerned that I say I follow a minimally processed diet approach, yet used a protein powder in my pancake recipe, clearly a highly processed ingredient*. She’s not wrong – protein powder is highly processed for sure, even the brands that I use and recommend others do: those that don’t have a lot of added ingredients bar the protein powder, some flavouring and stevia-based (or thaumine) sweetener . It got me thinking though. This person was annoyed that I was straying from their perception of what I advocate. If I could include protein powder in my recipes, clearly I’m not an advocate of the real food approach. How could people trust anything I say if I suggest that protein powder is okay? I wasn’t living up to her expectations of me, and she was disappointed.

It’s a tough balance: when I changed my philosophy around food I think I was a lot like other people – went too far in the extreme of finding the perfect real-food approach in an effort to ditch processed food. Legumes and all grains were off the menu (regardless of dietary tolerances, as this was the ‘perfect paleo’ way). All bread was to be avoided at all costs. Only drink red wine (less sugar) … It was 95% of what you’d call a ‘primal’ approach.

Like most people, though, I have settled in an approach to eating that is more practical to real life and, frankly, less exhausting. I have my diet non-negotiables –for me, I don’t touch diet soft drinks and chewing gum. In fact, I had a dream a few months ago that someone offered me a piece of gum and I took it. I woke up in a panicked state. This is because around 6 years ago I couldn’t go a day without having Wrigley’s Extra gum, and now I am scared that if I have it again that it would be a quick slide back into a daily habit that I couldn’t stop (even though when I gave it up it was literally like a switch had gone off in my brain and I couldn’t imagine having it again). I don’t have food allergies, so unlike other people, there isn’t anything that I must avoid or I’d be seriously compromising my health. That said, if I was eating the way I did during my Master’s degree at Otago, I couldn’t last during the day – I’d regularly have to nap in the afternoon under my desk after a diet coke and a massive ciabatta bun from Il Panificio bakery for lunch, which was backing up a large milky trim cappuccino and a dark rye sesame bun for breakfast. A carb overload and no fat or protein will do that to me (and a lot of people) – and don’t get me wrong – I LOVED it (and still would!) Just not how it makes me feel and, unfortunately, now I know too much about the long-term implications of eating such a nutrient-void diet). Huh. And I was doing a Master’s in nutrition at the time…

For everything else, though it is more about dietary principles rather than strict rigidity. Less religion and more realness. I try to avoid vegetable seed oils and artificial sweeteners that impact on blood sugar levels. However, if there is a dip that someone has brought along to a dinner party that has canola or sunflower oil as the second ingredient, I would likely have some if I thought it sounded nice, even if I wouldn’t buy it myself.  I avoid eating soy – especially products that use it as a cheap protein filler as you’ll find it in many packaged goods, though by now living in a vegetarian/vegan household, I eat organic tofu around once a week – and really enjoy it. I consume gluten when I have (for example) a date scone, or I really feel like toast. This might be once a fortnight. I drink wine. I have 3-4 alcohol free nights per week, but enjoy red wine (and coming into summer, white wine too – even though it has a higher residual sugar count). Not a lot – 1-2 glasses, and what they serve at the local bar is probably a more generous pour than we have at home. I like chocolate. I eat Quest protein bars (the varieties that don’t have sucralose as a sweetener in them – some do, some don’t) and use these as a bit of a stop gap as when training intensity ramps up (as it has over the last couple of months). I’m just hungrier in general and am not always organised. Despite their ‘organic’ label, these are about as far away from real food as you can get.

We buy white bread – the stock standard cheap loaves – as this is one of the only things that never comes home in the school lunch box during the week. If you’re wondering, I don’t think there is too much difference between white and multi-grain bread, really – it is all rubbish. I don’t eat it myself (any toast I have would be out at a cafe, a more delicious type of sourdough or ciabatta, probably), and can justify it till the cows come home but truth be told, getting any food in some kids can be difficult, so if they will eat a white bread egg or cheese sandwich that is going to at least fill them up, then so be it. A friend of mine commented on how she laughs when I post about lunchbox options for kids – and how (for her at least) it’s just a little unpractical and/or even if the kids show interest one day, the next they won’t have a bar of it. Now I get it. I really think I didn’t have a true appreciation for this and if I can somehow crack the nut that is ‘school lunches’ then I’d probably be a gazillionaire. One day. Maybe. (And if you have any bright ideas that I might not have thought of, pass them on!)

So, yeah. I still call my dietary principles ‘minimal processed food’ relative to the food environment and where I was at 7 years ago. Sorry to disappoint or concern anyone. Or perhaps this just makes you feel a little relieved that, despite best intentions, it doesn’t read like a perfect food environment or a perfect food diary, even for someone with my nutrition qualifications and practical experience. But that’s real life, and we do what we can. Some days are awesome, some weeks are awesome, and some, well, some just aren’t. That’s life, right? And when the dust settles, I’m pretty happy with it actually.  If you do what you can and have the best intentions going into it – then you’re always going to do better than if you didn’t try at all.

So please don’t think you have to be perfect – I’m not and nor should you stress about striving to be so. If you want some guidance at reaching your ‘happy spot’ click here to book a consultation or check out my online nutrition coaching services.

Jan’s story: a real food success story

When I met Jan, she had already lost 10kg through Jenny Craig but was super unhappy and hungry, experiencing bouts of hypoglycaemia (and used dates to help lift her blood sugars again, which would exacerbate the problem), had knee pain, was experiencing patterns of low mood and overall didn’t feel very good. Further, her HbA1c, measure of long-term blood sugar control, placed her in the pre-diabetic range (above 41 mmol/L). To my mind, this cut-off seems a little arbitrary. There really is nothing different between 40 and 42 mmol/L where one is ‘fine’ and healthy, and the other is ‘pre-diabetic’. Many GPs I talk to feel the same, but I digress.

We talked through her diet, which was a little like this:

  • Pre-breakfast: Cup of tea plus piece of fruit (off to do some work on the farm)
  • Breakfast: 2 eggs on toast with butter
  • Snacks: scroggin mix, fruit, rice crackers
  • Lunch: salad with greens with grated cheese and tomatoes
  • Dinner: standard kiwi dinner food, with some adjustments made thanks to Jenny Craig programme.

It certainly wasn’t a junk-food diet the way we understand ‘junk food’ to be, however it was low in protein with the balance of macronutrients geared towards higher carbohydrate choices: fruit, toast, dried fruit, rice crackers etc.

We talked through dietary changes and lifestyle changes, and I made several recommendations based on the information she provided and subsequent blood tests that she had conducted. The main shifts in her diet were to:

  • Anchor meals around protein, fibre and fat to stabilise blood sugar
  • Avoid snacking where possible
  • Removal of most carbohydrate (including fruit) to help lower her overall blood sugar level
  • Including raw apple cider vinegar around meals (to help with glycemic control)
  • Remove dairy (clinically I see many women in their late 40s and above benefit from removing dairy from their diet)
  • Supplementing with magnesium and chromium for blood sugar control, and supplements to help support her liver function
  • Slow cook meat wherever possible (to reduce the formation of advanced glycated end-products which are toxic, especially for someone with poor blood sugar control).

Over the course of the next 14 weeks, Jan has experienced the following:

  • Sleep has improved
  • Knees no longer sore when moving
  • Blood sugars have stabilised, no signs of hypoglycaemia
  • Mood has infinitely improved
  • Skin and hair are better
  • No cravings
  • Appetite is good, feels satisfied with food
  • Body composition changes: she has dropped 15 kg
  • HbA1c had dropped to 37 mmol/L (out of the ‘danger’ zone).

Importantly, her overall wellbeing is SO much better than it was. She sounds so much brighter on the phone, she feels so much better about herself and she has achieved so much. When we caught up two months ago at our previous appointment her weight had stabilised around 5 kg heavier than it is now, though she continued to notice body composition changes – her shape was changing but on the scales, it was the same. I see that frequently, and nothing is linear, of course. It can be weeks of plateauing on the scales before they shift. Is this a metabolic adaptation? Not sure. Usually it’s compliance to diet, though Jan had been consistent with her approach. Of course, there are things you can do to help move the needle a little bit if necessary, but sometimes it can just be a matter of waiting it out before the trend down continues. The key is to not be demotivated by this. Scales can be a good indicator of progress, but remember not to rely on them as the sole indicator. Luckily for Jan, she was experiencing the benefits of eating well every day, so even though the number on the scale hadn’t changed, she still felt good about her lifestyle change. Her husband has also benefited from her lifestyle change, dropping excess body fat by virtue of eating from the same food supply.

A typical day’s food intake for Jan now would be:

  • Breakfast: 2 eggs plus bacon and mushrooms
  • Lunch: salad, chicken, a boiled egg
  • Dinner: salmon, roast pumpkin and carrot and salad

OR

  • Breakfast: 3 scrambled eggs, tomatoes, spinach
  • Lunch: sushi (no rice), cabbage slaw
  • Dinner: butter chicken with cauliflower rice

If she feels like a sweet treat, she makes something like this Pete Evans nut bar, or mixes up some coconut yoghurt and frozen berries to make a sorbet-type dessert, and is completely satisfied. She was initially worried about my reaction to the nut bar, given it’s got some dried fruit in it, however she reiterated that she cut it into 30 pieces, froze it, and brings it out “not every day” to have with a coffee. Honestly, though, had she told me she ate it every day and got these physical and psychological benefits, then it is working for her regardless of what I think (in the context of an already stellar food intake). One food doesn’t make or break a diet.

She finds it is super easy for her to follow this way of eating and eating out or with other people is not an issue. She asks for dressings for salads, and sauces for steaks on the side to control how much of these she has, and to help avoid hidden added sugar or industrial seed oils that are commonly found in these foods. She is ‘busy’ but not overly active, and we are working on getting her resistance training up to help protect her bones AND increase muscle mass. These two things will help her overall health and prevent sarcopenia in later years. We are starting with home based activities for this. While she could have started this earlier, it’s sometimes easier to focus on one health behaviour and bring the others in – everyone is different though; so this needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis.

One thing she does find interesting is other people’s reaction to her weight loss, with some people asking when she will stop doing what she’s doing (as if it is a ‘diet’, which Jan isn’t on), or saying that she is getting ‘too thin.’ This regularly happens when someone loses weight and gains health; people are used to seeing a different version of them. To deviate from this can be unsettling. For others, they subconsciously take the actions of someone like Jan personally, like she (who is adopting the improved health behaviour) is doing it to highlight some failing of their own. While that might seem ego-centric of them, I don’t think it’s on purpose for most people! These people are often good friends and want to see you succeed. The important thing for Jan in this instance is to not take on board what others say and stay confident and strong in her approach.

So that’s Jan. Awesome, huh? She’s booked a holiday too – something she said she wouldn’t have contemplated previously. This has less to do with her weight (though certainly she can move around much more freely) but more about the increase in overall wellbeing that has occurred through adopting these changes. It makes me feel so privileged to work with people like Jan and share in their success. While I gave Jan the tools to guide her, the hard work was up to her. If you’re in a position to do the same, click here to set up an appointment, or check out my online nutrition coaching options here.

paleo-table

Delicious food! (PC: runningcompetitor.com)

Trouble shifting body fat? Two solutions (which are free! And simple).

Lots of good things happen when you eat well (and by well, I mean forgoing the advice of the dietary guidelines and following a less processed, more whole food kind of approach). Your sleep can improve, your skin clears up, your eyes sparkle with an increase in vitality and that brain fog you were struggling with for years (it’s just age!) has cleared. Your concentration levels are second to none.

But your weight isn’t budging. And you’re frustrated as hell. I get it. I talk to many clients and online coaching members about this. If all other aspects of your health improve with the change in diet and lifestyle, then by default, excess body fat should begin to shift. But, unsurprisingly, not for everyone*.

What,then, are two diet ‘hacks’ that could help you push through the weight loss stall?  Well it could be pretty simple, actually. You could either eat more, or eat less.

Eat more

If you are consistently trying to eat fewer calories, this can backfire on you – over an extended period of time this will break down muscle tissue and reduce overall metabolic rate, sending signals to your hypothalamus to shut down all unnecessary metabolic processes as energy needs to be preserved. In this context, the last thing your body wants to do is shift body fat. This is something that the physique athletes (such as bodybuilders) have known for years and often use a ‘refeeding’ period (of more calories or carbohydrates in one or more meals per week) that sends a message to the hypothalamus assuring it that there is enough calories coming in that it doesn’t need to slow anything down, or shut any processes off. While this is used a lot anecdotally, in research we see an increase in the hormone leptin with an increase of carbohydrate calories during periodic overfeeding, though the metabolic changes are modest at best. Despite lack of scientific verification, I’ve seen many weight loss stalls broken through once calorie cycling is introduced (and overfeeding, something I term a metabolic reset meal – I should really ™ that one).

Some options could be to:

  1. Include a meal based around kumara or potato, and make it a large one (for example, jacket potato with taco mince for dinner.
  2. Have dessert – it doesn’t have to be processed, refined carbohydrate if you don’t want it to be (though it can be! 90/10 and all that…) How about a fruit crumble or real banana icecream made with frozen banana and coconut cream?
  3. Eat whatever you want, one meal a week – this isn’t a license to binge, but rather a recognition that it’s what you do typically that makes the overall difference – one meal is neither here nor there, really. Have McDonalds if you really want to (not judging or anything, though I can’t imagine why you’d want to.)

Your body responds well to changes in energy flux – consuming a higher number of calories on days where you expend more energy (ie a high energy flux) will encourage hormone signalling in your body that allows for more lean tissue to be laid down, and is great for bone health.

Eat less

Conversely, if you’re eating too many calories on every day of the week, then you’re…eating too much. I know, can it really be that simple? Think about it: you’ve changed the types of foods you’re eating, and this has equated to better appetite regulation so you’re no longer eating because of insulin surges and blood sugar crashes. However you may still be in the habit of eating a certain amount of food which could be preventing you from dropping body fat. If you’re following a low carbohydrate, higher fat approach as a means to lose weight, a common mistake is that people eat too much fat. Don’t forget that you want to utilise some of those calories stored on your body, and part of the ‘HF’ of LCHF should come from this reserve rather than be provided by the diet. You don’t need to count calories to do this, either. It might be as simple as:

  1. Dropping out one or more snacks (if you’re in the habit of snacking) –those nuts mid-morning, the bier stick mid afternoon or the 70% cocoa chocolate at night. What is the worst that can happen? You’ll feel hungry, likely. This doesn’t mean you need the calories, it’s more likely your body’s used to eating at that time, therefore it’s anticipating a feeding period and releasing ghrelin (our ‘hungry’ hormone) because of this. It will pass. Have a drink of sparkling water and brush your teeth instead.
  2. Dropping the fat content on days you aren’t as active – this is an easy way to drop calories (thus cycling calories) – but without the feeling that you’re depriving yourself. I’m not suggesting you use products that have had their fat removed (ie trim milk), but don’t use as much added fat as you normally might on the days where energy expenditure is lower. Forgo the almond butter on your cottage cheese and berries for breakfast, omit the nuts that you’d normally add to your lunchtime salad, or serve salmon with the skin on at dinner with steamed vegetables rather than creamed or roasted ones. If you are hungrier, then up the amount of protein you consume on these days by about a third per meal (as we know that this will likely benefit body composition). This won’t make up for the number of calories you’ve saved by making these small changes.
  3. Experiment with fasting. You’ve got nothing to lose with this one and, if you do it in a way that is sustainable for your lifestyle, then you’ll naturally drop body fat with little effort. I know many people are afraid to fast for the additional stress it might place on their body. To be honest, I think there’s almost been a disservice to our stress response – we hear so often of how everyone is ‘too stressed’ and while this is true, I speak to many people who are now too afraid to exercise due to the metabolic damage they could incur due to their already stressed state. Stress is really healthy for the body – it adapts and becomes more resilient. Fasting is a type of stressor (and I’ve written about it in more detail here) and it might be the thing you need to kick your fat loss into gear. You may have more to gain from a 5:2 protocol, where your normal food intake is cut by a third on two (non-consecutive) days of the week. You may wish for this to be one meal or two smaller meals. Go easy on the activity on these days (and time your workouts to be before your larger meal), and when you do eat, make them protein and vegetable based – the caloric restriction doesn’t allow for a large fat intake, and protein will be more satiating anyway. I suggest not doing back to back calorie-restricted days- you may eat slightly more food the day after the fast (or not, it’s quite individual) and if you fast for a second day after a refeed meal, this could put you in a bit of a hungry/hangry spin.

So, these are just a couple of things you could try. Of course, there may be more going on that is preventing you from shifting fat, and that’s where talking to a professional can help. But if you’ve not tried either of the above, then give it a whirl. For a good 4-6 weeks I think. Your body needs time to adjust to a change in environment.

* Now I don’t use scales in my clinic, nor make it a blanket recommendation for people to do so as their measure of fat loss. How your clothes fit, your waist measurement, what you see in the mirror –these are far more accurate ways of assessing changes in body composition. In saying that though, some are motivated by what the scales say and if they can remove their perception of self-worth from the number on the scales, then it’s not a problem. In addition, some find them a very useful monitoring tool and can keep on target if they use scales daily – research does support the daily use of scales for helping people reach their body composition goals.

East_More_Food

PC: eatTV.com