14 reasons to ditch the toast and jam (and 7 key tips to help you do this).

After feeling like I’d taken a trip back to 2003 with some of the sports nutrition posts and articles I’d been reading lately, I got tagged in a cool picture from a listener of our Fitter Radio podcast  – a triathlete who has switched from the traditional higher carb, lower fat diet approach to eating lower carb, higher fat, real food whilst training and commented she ‘didn’t know her 41 year old body could be the best body I have ever had’ (Woot! high fives all around!!) This coincided with finishing Mark Sisson’s Primal Endurance book.

Mark outlines 115 reasons why athletes should train and eat the Primal Endurance way. I concurred with pretty much all of them. I have added my own 2c worth, added some literature below (and cut it down to 21 for brevity’s sake). While geared towards athletes, hands down this is applicable to everyone. Everyone.

So if you’re currently eating toast and jam pre OR post training (or in general), I’ve outlined the 14 reasons why you need to ditch that junk and become a fat burning beast, and 7 key tips to help you get there.

  1. Western diet is based on excess grains and sugars (and low fibre) which stimulates excess insulin production, leading to lifelong insidious weight gain, chronic inflammation and elevated disease risk factors.
  2. A high carb, grain-based diet can leave endurance athletes nutrient deficient (due to phytic acid effects on minerals), inflamed and more susceptible to the oxidative damage of the stress of training, general life and poor nutrition.
  3. The way that most people consume modern grains (cereals, breads, pasta) ends up being a cheap source of calories which are immediately turned into glucose upon ingestion and offer minimal nutritional value. There are no good reasons to consume these types of grains and many good reasons not to, especially for those who are sensitive to gluten and other anti-nutrients found in wheat.
  4. Everyone is sensitive to the health compromising effects of grains at some level, especially the pro-inflammatory effects of gluten and the propensity for the lectins in grains to cause leaky gut syndrome.
  5. Even lean people suffer from the consequences of carbohydrate dependency, such as chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and accelerated ageing and disease risk factors.
  6. Carrying excess body fat despite careful attention to diet and a high training load is largely due to carbohydrate dependency caused by a grain-based diet and chronic training patterns.
  7. Carbohydrate dependency cycle looks like this: consume a high carbohydrate meal – elevate bloods sugar – stimulate an insulin response – shut off fat metabolism and promote fat storage – experience fatigue and sugar cravings – low blood sugar elicits stress response and we consume more carbohydrates – stimulate the fight or flight response to regulate blood sugar – dysregulate and exhaust assorted hormonal processes, and end up in burnout and weight gain (potentially lifelong)
  8. Weight loss through portion control, low fat foods and calorie burning is ineffective long term. And while we think calories burned through exercise stimulate a corresponding increase in appetite – research might not back this up. I tend to think that people are more likely to eat more because they ‘reward’ themselves OR the long slow training allows increased opportunity to eat sports ‘junk food’ and the amount of calories burnt through training is far less than you think – and overestimated more so in females in certain instances. At any rate, the secret to weight loss is hormone optimisation, primarily through moderating excess insulin production.
  9. Endurance athletes can begin to dial in to their optimal carbohydrate intake by asking themselves the question ‘do I carry excess body fat?’ Any excess body fat calls for a reduction in dietary carbohydrate intake to accelerate fat burning.
  10. Endurance athletes who already have an optimal body composition but are looking to optimise training and recovery should choose high nutrient value carbohydrates. These include a high volume of vegetables, a moderate fruit intake, kumara/potatoes and other starchy tubers, dairy for those that tolerate, wild rice, quinoa and small amounts of dark chocolate.
  11. Endurance athletes with high calorie needs who also have an optimal body composition can enjoy occasional treats, but the habit of unbridled intake of nutrient-deficient carbohydrates should be eliminated in the interest of health and performance.
  12. Primal style eating (or eating minimally processed foods) is fractal and intuitive, and when escaping carbohydrate dependency and becoming fat adapted, you don’t have to rely on ingested carbs for energy. Eating patterns can be driven by hunger, pleasure and maximal nutritional benefit.
  13. Escaping sugar dependency and becoming fat adapted gives you a cleaner burning engine, since glucose burning promotes inflammation and increased oxidative stress
  14. Ketones are an internally generated, energy rich by-product of fat metabolism in the liver when blood glucose and insulin levels are low due to carbohydrate restriction in the diet. Ketones are burned efficiently by the brain, heart and skeletal tissue in the same manner as glucose. You do not need to be on a ketogenic diet to upregulate your ability to produce ketones – you can do this via a lower carbohydrate approach.

HOW TO DO THIS: 7 KEY TIPS

  1. Step one: omit sugars, grains, industrial seed oils for 21 days. Step two: emphasis highly nutritious foods such as meat, poultry, vegetables, eggs, nuts, fish, fruits, some full fat dairy, seeds, and kumara/potato.
  2. 100g or less of carbohydrate promotes fat loss, 150g is around maintenance level and over this could promote lifelong weight gain and over 300g could promote disease patterns.
  3. While transitioning to primal there are some struggles initially due to lifelong carbohydrate dependency and the addictive (for some) properties of sugar and excess grains and wheat. Headaches, dehydration, lower blood pressure and ‘dead legs’ are all initial side effects when removing processed food. Trust me – this too will pass.
  4. To minimise side effects, start the transition in a base-training phase of your training where training occurs at an easy pace. The transition phase can take anywhere from 2-12 weeks initially.
  5. Consume salt. Don’t underestimate the importance of this! Lower circulating insulin affects your body’s ability to retain sodium (and other electrolytes) – so we need more, particularly as processed food (of which you are no longer basing your diet around) is where you got around 70% of your sodium from.
  6. You can accelerate the process of fat adaptation by instigating some of the tactics used by athletes who opt to ‘train low’ – i.e. in a low glycogen training state. Some of these are naturally undertaken if you train without eating in the morning, or work out after dinner in the evening and don’t consume anything post-workout. If you’re new to this, have a read through to establish which might suit you best, and start instigating 1-2 x per week. Don’t undertake all of them as this aggressive approach could cause too much additional stress, derailing your plans to become a fat-burning beast.
  7. The FASTER study and Peter Attia, Sami Inkinen suggests any endurance athlete can become fat adapted and deliver performances that may be superior to carb-fuelled efforts all of the way up to anaerobic intensity. This is a new and growing research space, one AUT is testing, among other Universities around the globe.
Strong, lean and awesome at 41y.

Strong, lean and awesome at 41y.

 

PS What the Fat Sports Performance – currently an ebook, about to be published is one I can’t WAIT to read as well – sure to be a goody.

10 ways to naturally reduce your cholesterol-related risk and save yourself $8.00

I was at the supermarket yesterday and just happened to be taking a picture of an iced coffee drink when someone came beside me to grab a couple for themselves and put them in their trolley alongside a pottle of Flora ProActiv margarine.

Heinous drink containing 75g sugar on the left, and overpriced margarine on the right. JICYWW.

Heinous drink containing 75g sugar on the left, and overpriced margarine on the right. JICYWW.

There’s a disconnect right there.

These margarines are not only ridiculously expensive and taste terrible (I suppose that’s the nature of margarine anyway), but consuming this spread in an effort to reduce cholesterol levels is totally misguided. Don’t get me wrong. They work. In fact, a good friend of mine did her Master’s project at the same time as I did to show their effect at lowering LDL cholesterol in a clinical trial. There have been more than a handful of randomised controlled trials that show plant sterols can inhibit cholesterol absorption and reduce LDL cholesterol.

The end goal, however, shouldn’t be about reducing your LDL cholesterol levels. You’re probably down with that anyway given you’re reading my blog. The end goal is about reducing your overall health risk, and these margarines have not been shown to do this, despite the Heart Foundation tick and the Health Star Rating. In fact, for a substantial proportion of the population, a lower cholesterol level increases the risk of heart disease (for more information, read this excellent blog post by Zoe Harcombe)

Interestingly, even the American Heart Association released a statement saying the use of sterol and stanol esters should be reserved for adults requiring LDL cholesterol lowering because of hypercholesterolemia, or as secondary prevention after an atherosclerotic event – and these have yet to be updated.

If you want the real benefits of cholesterol lowering foods, eat your plant sterols in the form that nature intended (i.e. plants), not a pharmaceutical company

Anyways.

Here are 10 ways to naturally reduce your risk related to cholesterol and save yourself $8.00

  1. Eat more vegetable fibre. Fibre is the ‘f’ word that is super important but doesn’t receive nearly as much press as the other ‘f’ word (fat). Current recommendations are 28g for females, and 34g for males and we are currently consuming an average of 20g per day. Fibre comes in a few different forms and while soluble fibre has been found to lower cholesterol absorption – this is not the most important aspect to my mind. A few people (who may have a genetic defect that makes them hyperabsorb fibre, or have a defect on their LDL cholesterol recpetors which limits their cholesterol uptake and removal) would benefit from this in particular. Moreso, eating more plant based fibre shifts us back to an eating pattern that, as Eaton & Cordain point out, we consumed for over 99% of human evolution. And while estimations of fibre intake of Hunter Gatherers vary (as pointed out by Steve in this excellent blog post), the point is: we don’t eat enough of these plant-based foods and we need to eat more AND more from the sources of foods which are as close to their natural form as they can be. You’ve heard of the 5 a day campaign? I say we should aim for 9 – and mostly vegetables. This is particularly true if you do have underlying inflammation that is driving up your cholesterol level. There different types of fibre and soluble fibre is known to absorb cholesterol and remove it from food you eat and your bloodstream. This level of detail is certainly useful if you have a genetic predisposition towards a high cholesterol level which places you at risk (i.e. familial hypercholesterolemia). However, to keep it brief: if you’re currently barely managing three serves of vegetables a day – work on increasing vegetables in general. Natural sources of fibre from plants will deliver soluble and insoluble fibre, along with resistant starch. This is a good place to start.
  2. Ditch processed food. Sounds dramatic I know – and it’s not realistic to ‘never eat anything in a packet’. However if most of your daily calories come with a nutrient information panel and an ingredient list, then you seriously need to reconsider what you are putting into your body. Processed food is devoid of nutrients in the forms your body requires, contains additives and preservatives, some of which have a dubious health profile and takes very little energy to digest. This leads to peaks and troughs in your blood sugar levels, poor appetite control and the potential to overeat.
  3. Ditch sugar. No surprises here. Sugar not only increases your risk of metabolic syndrome that can result in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular disease risk, it drives almost all inflammatory pathways in the body. Thankfully though, if you try hard to stick to #2 above, you’ll do this by default. Do note though, minimising sugar includes all forms of sugar – including the ‘natural’ forms. If you’re unsure of what a sugar is, print out this PDF which tells you the 56 different names to burn into your brain for your supermarket shop.
  4. Lose weight. Or, more specifically, lose body fat. Being obese is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, neurological conditions and some cancers. Yes there are certainly limitations with how we define ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’, but you don’t have to rely on tools to establish whether or not you need to lose some additional fat around the middle. You know this yourself.
  5. Increase your intake of omega 3 fatty acid rich foods (think salmon, mackerel, herring and sardines) and consider an omega 3 supplement if you don’t eat fish. I know – you’re thinking ‘what about plant-based sources’? truth is, these don’t contain the type of long chain fatty acids that are most beneficial for reducing risk of chronic disease, and their conversion rate into those forms is quite poor. Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) is the omega 3 that is involved in reducing inflammation, and if you do have high cholesterol and inflammation, then a supplement such as this Nordic Naturals could be worthwhile taking. While a very recent clinical trial failed to show improvements in total cholesterol with the addition of an omega 3 supplementation, it did show a reduction in fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels and c-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation in the body). And as I said, your cholesterol level might not be the most important metabolic marker to focus on anyway. Vegetarians especially would benefit from supplementation, and an algae supplement would provide a similar benefit.
  6. Get out in the sun…. and get your vitamin D levels checked. There is an association between low vitamin D and poor metabolic health – studies have shown a link between high sunlight hours and lower cholesterol levels at a population levels. This is due to the exposure of skin to the UVB rays that uses cholesterol to create vitamin D. However, a large percentage of New Zealander’s are below adequate levels. For best and safe practice, sun exposure, minus the burning, for 10-15 minutes where parts of your skin not often seen by the sun (for maximum absorption) are exposed (think: armpits, abdomen – unless you’re young and gorgeous) is best. The thing is, though, the sun doesn’t hit the earth at the right latitude to get any of those rays to produce vitamin D in winter, so we can be lagging even more coming into spring. So supplementation could well be required. In addition to the mechanism above, studies (like this one) have shown that higher dose vitamin D supplementation can lower cholesterol and inflammatory markers in women. If supplementing, choose a supplement that also includes vitamin K2 to help vitamin D’s absorption such as this Clinicians one.
  7. Alpha-lipoic acid (along with other antioxidants vitamin C or E) can provide antioxidant support to help reduce your overall health risk associated with cholesterol levels (i.e. reduce inflammation and oxidative species) by increasing the activity of your body’s antioxidant defences. If you’re wanting to spend your money on actively lowering your cholesterol, these relatively safe supplement options are a better idea than margarine.
  8. Your thyroid, your gut, your genetic profile can all influence your cholesterol profile. If your cholesterol is more than a bit elevated, consider investigating other reasons for this. FYI it’s now easier to get your LDL cholesterol tested, rather than calculated, including those which are more atherogenic, such as VLDL, oxidised LDL if you do have concerns. You can work with a practitioner to do this.
  9. Exercise. Free and long known to improve metabolic health. The arguments for or against the benefit of exercise for losing weight are irrelevant. Mood, lean muscle mass, cardiovascular fitness and general all around awesomeness will increase. It doesn’t mean you have to slog it out in the gym. Body weight exercises and some short, sharp, intense exercise a couple of times a week – combined with walking and general movement as much as you can – is most effective for health and wellbeing. If you like to track your details then get a Fitbit or a Garmin or similar. If you obsess over numbers then don’t.
  10. Stress less. Sleep more. And if you are losing weight, and doing all of the above, wait for your weight to stabilise before worrying too much about your cholesterol levels, which can be elevated during this time.

 

Body weight exercises from the 7min workout - not a bad place to start. (http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/09/the-scientific-7-minute-workout/)

Body weight exercises from the 7min workout – not a bad place to start. (http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/09/the-scientific-7-minute-workout/)