What’s the best exercise for longevity?

Well, that’s a bit of a loaded question, really. As any is better than none, and there will be different points of views by different experts (of which I am not one of them). However, the older I get, the more I am interested in the effects of ageing on our overall health span. Ageing is unavoidable; it happens to the best of us. Listed below are some of the physiological and biological changes that can occur the older we become:

  1. Insulin resistance – this is in healthy weight older adults also, with research showingthere is more peripheral insulin resistance compared to a younger population (an inability to dispose of glucose into the tissue).
  2. Decreased availability of anabolic hormones, and increased frailty with lower levels of hormones
  3. Increased anabolic resistance, so not only is there a decrease in the hormones that signal tissue growth, the muscle tissue is less responsive to the stimulus of amino acids (protein) and exercise, and there is less muscle protein synthesis in comparison to breakdown.
  4. Greater protein requirementsfor the same relative gains in muscle, strength and function compared to a younger population
  5. Decreased motor neuron function, therefore less neural signalling to muscle tissues and reduced motor function.
  6. Increased intracellular oxidative stress, causing inflammation and reduced cell functioning
  7. Reduction in satellite (stem) cellsnumbers and regenerative capacity – these cells are essential for the maintenance and repair tissues in normal physiological processes or in response to muscle damage/trauma.
  8. Elevated myostatin signalling, a protein that blocks our ability to build muscle
  9. Increased chronic inflammation (also known as inflamm-aging)
  10. Changes in autophagy, where ageing reduces our ability to clear out damaged DNA
  11. Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities, where we can’t utilise energy metabolites as effectively to fuel mitochondria
  12. Reduced ability to be physically active (due to many of the reasons listed above)

This is a long, daunting and rather depressing list of what can occur as we age – and we are an ageing population. There is no doubt that if we don’t look after the body we have got, then we really are staring down the barrel of a loaded gun. The list above describes many of the mechanisms to explain the loss of muscle mass and function. It’s not about being ripped or having gainz, it’s about having proper functioning of the muscle so it can work effectively in our older years. This is what is shown to have the most positive impact on our cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems.

Inactivity is the broader environmental issue that we need to address any (and all) of the physiological issues I have mentioned above. We need to be active – in everyday life, and with some structured activity too. Hanging out washing and housework isn’t going to cut it, I’m afraid. I see a lot of people who have this idea that you don’t need to exercise in order to lose weight, and you can do it solely on diet alone. This is true, of course, but when you embark on any weight loss plan that restricts calories (i.e. any weight loss plan that is out there), then you will lose both fat weight and muscle mass – lowering your overall metabolic rate along with it. This is one of the reasons why weight regain is so prevalent, however the powerful combination of diet plus exercise helps sustainable weight loss. As I alluded to above, exercise isn’t just moving around the house, doing chores – this should just be part of everyday living. Data looking at the effects of exercise show that resistance training confers benefits over and above what we would see if we were just doing 30 minutes exercise per day.

The right type and duration of exercise:

The challenge is to get people exercising. And this is especially so for those who read what I have said above, and think that – on top of 30 minutes of aerobic training they don’t have time to do, they then need to put some resistance (or weight) training in.

I’m not writing this to encourage you to find an additional 3 hours in your week, though.

In fact, a study that is yet to be published (I heard about it on STEM talk) suggests that just 72 minutes a week in total is enough to help many of the conditions associated with ageing and poor health that I’ve mentioned above. Egan and colleagues found a combination of both resistance and cardiovascular exercise in a circuit-type setting for adults over 65 years just three times a week for 24 minutes increased walking speed, leg strength and reduced trunk fat. These measures speak to better muscular function, obviously increased strength, and will help reduce metabolic health risk. The improvements were more potent in this combined group than either resistance training or aerobic training for the same duration.

So this was a very long preamble to the main message: if you are currently NOT exercising, then please start. While there are modalities that are better than others, seriously, anything will be better than nothing. The study I talked about is in older adults, you likely don’t need me to tell you that any age you start is obviously better than not starting at all. AND the earlier you start, the better the overall health outcomes.

Exercise-1

Seriously. Those pink dumbbells. Because obviously an older female couldn’t possibly lift anything heavier, right?! (PC:www.fabafterfifty.co.uk).

 

Exercise for longevity – is there a best approach?

The older I get, the more I am interested in the effects of ageing on our overall health span. Ageing is unavoidable, it happens to the best of us. Listed below are some of the physiological and biological changes that can occur the older we become:

  1. Insulin resistance – this is in healthy weight older adults also, with research showing there is more peripheral insulin resistance compared to a younger population (an inability to dispose of glucose into the tissue).
  2. Decreased availability of anabolic hormones, and increased frailty with lower levels of hormones
  3. Increased anabolic resistance, so not only is there a decrease in the hormones that signal tissue growth, the muscle tissue is less responsive to the stimulus of amino acids (protein) and exercise, and there is less muscle protein synthesis in comparison to breakdown.
  4. Greater protein requirements for the same relative gains in muscle, strength and function compared to a younger population
  5. Decreased motor neuron function, therefore less neural signalling to muscle tissues and reduced motor function.
  6. Increased intracellular oxidative stress, causing inflammation and reduced cell functioning
  7. Reduction in satellite (stem) cells numbers and regenerative capacity – these cells are essential for the maintenance and repair tissues in normal physiological processes or in response to muscle damage/trauma.
  8. Elevated myostatin signalling, a protein that blocks our ability to build muscle
  9. Increased chronic inflammation (also known as inflamm-aging)
  10. Changes in autophagy, where ageing reduces our ability to clear out damaged DNA
  11. Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities, where we can’t utilise energy metabolites as effectively to fuel mitochondria
  12. Reduced ability to be physically active (due to many of the reasons listed above)

Clearly, these are not all inevitable. However, it is a long, daunting, and rather depressing list of what can occur as we age – and we are an ageing population. There is no doubt that if we don’t look after this body we have got, then we really are staring down the barrel of a loaded gun.

The list above describes many of the mechanisms to explain the loss of muscle mass and function. It’s not about being ripped or having gainz, it’s about having proper functioning of the muscle so it can work effectively in our older years – this is what is shown to have the most positive impact on our cardiovascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems.

Inactivity is the broader environmental issue that contributes substantially to the physiological issues I have mentioned above. We need to be active – in everyday life, and with some structured activity too. Hanging out washing and housework isn’t going to cut it, I’m afraid. I see a lot of people who have this idea that you don’t need to exercise in order to lose weight, and you can do it solely on diet alone. This is true, of course, but when you embark on any weight loss plan that restricts calories (i.e. any weight loss plan that is out there), then you will lose both fat weight and muscle mass – lowering your overall metabolic rate along with it. This is one of the reasons why weight regain is so prevalent. However the powerful combination of diet plus exercise helps sustainable weight loss. And exercise isn’t just moving around the house, doing chores – this should just be part of everyday living. Data looking at the effects of exercise show that resistance training confers benefits over and above what we would see if we were just doing 30 minutes of cardio-based exercise per day, something that many of us maintain, but it doesn’t offer the same benefits.

The right type and duration of exercise:

The challenge is to get people exercising. And this is especially so for those who read what I have said above, and think that – on top of 30 minutes of aerobic training they don’t have time to do, they need to then put some resistance (or weight) training in.

This is not a call to encourage you to find an additional 3 hours in your week, though. In fact, a study that is about to be published (I heard about it on STEM talk) suggests that just 72 minutes a week in total is enough to help many of the conditions associated with ageing and poor health that I’ve mentioned above. Egan and colleagues found a combination of both resistance and cardiovascular exercise in a circuit-type setting for adults over 65 years just three times a week for 24 minutes increased walking speed, leg strength and reduced trunk fat. These measures speak to better muscular function, obviously increased strength, and will help reduce metabolic health risk. The improvements were more potent in this combined group than either resistance training or aerobic training for the same duration. It wasn’t olymic lifting from the sounds of it,  but it also wasn’t lifting pink dumbbells, either.

So this was a very long preamble to the main message: if you are currently NOT exercising, then please start. While there are modalities that are better than others, seriously, anything will be better than nothing. The study I talked about is in older adults, you likely don’t need me to tell you that any age you start is obviously better than not starting at all. AND the earlier you start, the better the overall health outcomes.

There is often an argument as to which is best; exercise or diet for improving health. That’s a weird argument to my mind. Both are important and should be prioritised if you want more life in the years you’ve got left.

stronger-effect-of-resistance-training-when-combined-with-protein-supplementation

One of the only pics I could find that didn’t involve pink dumbbells. (PC: https://www.frieslandcampinainstitute.com/)

Holiday weight gain?

Who doesn’t love a holiday? A break away from early alarm clocks, work and household chores. When out of your own space you’re forced to leave behind the normal routines that are well established in everyday life, which is obviously why we come back feeling refreshed and ready to get back into it. The problem, though, is that many people panic about getting out of routine with their food and exercise – what if that 10 days in Fiji goes and undoes the last three months of hard work and they end up gaining weight?

Well, it might not. Why?

1. You are a LOT more active on holiday compared to real life: driving to work and sitting in an office does not afford the same opportunity to be as active as sight-seeing does. I clocked up almost double the number of steps as I normally would when I was away. Even on days we didn’t run, relying on both public transport and my feet to see a city racked up enough steps so I was regularly doing 23,000 or more each day. However, if you’re a lounge-around-the-pool kind of vacationer, if you had a hit out in the hotel gym, you can avoid weight gain for a short term holiday in the face of a calorie excess.

2. You sleep more: lack of sleep will drive up insulin and cortisol levels and create a hormonal environment that is unfavourable for fat loss. Even if you have the perfect diet (if there is such a thing), no amount of calorie counting, carb watching, or protein eating will make up for the string of 5-6 hours a night you manage during the week when work, exercise and home duties take up so much time, you stay up later than you know you should just to enjoy a little time out.

3. You’re generally more relaxed. The everyday stress created by school pick-ups, work deadlines and weekend sport might be ‘normal’ life, but don’t underestimate the effect this can have on your ability to lose weight. While we may not know the underlying mechanisms, like the effects of sleep deprivation, a chronic overload of stress will increase hormones responsible for fat gain regardless of what you eat or how much exercise you do. In fact, for some, their normal stress relief of going for a run or doing an F45 class will only add to the stress bucket, further exacerbating a weight loss stall. And, when stressed, we often reach for food that is high in calories, low in nutrients.

What if it does?

If you were maintaining or losing weight prior to going away on holiday, then that tells me you’ve got the tools necessary to help you refocus on an eating style and exercise routine that will easily shed any fat gain that is the result of too many cocktails by the pool.

Actual fat gain will be quite minimal, and pretty easy to shift – potentially easier than what you were finding before your holiday. The additional calories eaten on holiday aren’t all stored as fat (at all!) We restock depleted glycogen, and for some, short term overfeeding  increases resting metabolic rate in response to increased food (as many of the overfeeding studies conducted under laboratory conditions have found). Even if you have a predisposition for weight gain, the amount of weight you can is usually far less than the excess calories eaten would predict.

However, for those panicking about the additional fat gain (if any):

1. Up the protein intake. This will help reduce any carb-related cravings from too many pancakes/baked goods/fat chips. Aim for foods that will provide 30g of protein per meal (as an example, a 150g beef steak has about 37g of protein, 3 large eggs around 24g of protein). This will help fill you up and regulate blood sugar, preventing any dip in energy that might be exacerbated by lack of sleep or jetlag. Combined with strategies listed below, it’s a recipe for fat loss.

2. Lay off the alcohol. We definitely had more wine and beer on holiday, and in the space of 15 days I had 2 days where I didn’t consume any during the holiday. Despite that I’m not drinking any more than 1-2 glasses (3 on a couple of occasions), it is more than what I’d normally drink. Post-holiday I went for a week without any – not a long time, but enough to help me get over my post-holiday tiredness and to ‘break the habit’ as it were. And I have to say, feel quite virtuous.

3. Drop back the fat intake – if you’ve gained excess body fat, then we want your body to tap into this (potentially) accessible fuel source – this obviously requires a calorie deficit. There is no need to seek out ‘low fat’ foods or avoid foods that naturally contain fat (i.e. egg yolks), however reducing down the amount of added fat to meals (via sauces, dressings, cooking oils, nut butters etc) will help reduce the calorie content of your diet with minimal effort.

4. Drop back the carbohydrate intake – some people benefit from doing a 21 day low (er than normal) carbohydrate diet. I know what you’re thinking – if I drop the fat AND the carbs, what do I eat? I’m talking short-term here – you base your meals around protein and titrate fat and carbohydrate according to that. If you know you feel better with a bit of carbohydrate in your diet, that’s no issue – just make it good quality (i.e. kumara) and make it a moderate serving. However, ample amounts of even low sugar carbohydrate (like rice, pasta, bread etc) will make it more difficult to shift.

5. Include plenty of vegetables – base your meals around these. The prebiotic fibre can help improve the gut environment after a week or more of too much fried foods (though that cheese hoagie was delicious) and too much alcohol. Splashing raw apple cider vinegar (ACV) on steamed vegetables ups the taste factor and helps reduce post-prandial (post-meal) blood sugar, making you less likely to search for something sweet. In addition, you can go for gold on most non-starchy vegetables, so fill your plate to help fill you up.

6. Lift weights. Heavy ones. If you don’t have access to a gym then even body weight exercises (such as press-ups, squats, lunges) if not doing them, will create stress to help you build muscle. I’m not suggesting you avoid lacing up for your long run – I’m a long-distance runner after all! –  resistance training, though, is metabolically demanding in the short term, and in the long term will preserve your resting metabolic rate to allow you to burn fat in everyday life. Plus, you’ll improve strength. Bonus.

7. Consider fasting. Be it the 5:2 protocol that I utilise in my fat-loss plans, a 16:8 protocol that is popular (i.e. fast from 8pm to 12pm the next day, or Super-fasting as per the Schofield/Zinn protocol outlined in What the Fast, it’s consistently found to improve metabolic health markers and can reduce calorie intake to elicit a fat-loss response.

8. Get plenty of sleep – try to get back into a 7-8h per night habit with this one and be disciplined about it, for reasons I outlined above.

And, finally (and most importantly), does it matter? I mean, does it truly matter that you come back from an awesome time away with a couple of additional kilograms? Part of the beauty of a holiday is leaving behind all of the routines of your day-to-day life, including exercise and your normal foods for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Many of us need a mental break almost as much as a physical one, and this includes a break from your usual diet and exercise regime. You will come back feeling refreshed and ready to embrace these with renewed energy (or being in a mindset of change for the better, if that is more appropriate).

escape

Get away from the routine of being in routine… (PC locokerala.com)

Food rules.

I’m all for flexibility when it comes to what people eat. Labels like ‘vegan’, ‘paleo’, ‘keto’ for a lot of people aren’t particularly useful (even when self-imposed) if that means the structure of their food intake is tied up into the ‘rules’ of that particular diet. People panic when they are out of their own food environment and unable to eat according to the rules of their dietary ethos. While there are those who intuitively know they don’t need to rigidly eat the same foods or meals to be able to progress towards their health goals, this isn’t a widely appreciated concept. For some, diet ‘rules’ can create a certain degree of neuroticism around food; people argue it is a form of orthorexia at its worse – I’m not sure I agree with that, given the complexities associated with diagnosed eating disorders. Regardless, if the anxiety around food exists, it can lead the person to turn down invitations where their dietary rules will not be able to be adhered to, thus becoming socially isolated from their normal circle of friends. Or they may still attend with the intention not to eat, only to ‘cave in’; one small snack becomes a bit of a binge-fest because they have ‘blown it all.’ Both of these situations can make a person feel pretty terrible, and do nothing for their self-esteem.  You can see why, then, there are people who are adamantly against ‘rules’ around food.

However, I don’t agree that there shouldn’t be any structure around what, how, and when a person eats.  I think you’ll know I’m not suggesting this structure should equate specifically to a dogmatic dietary regime, such as only eating ‘paleo’ or ‘raw vegan’. I’m talking about rules that take the decision making out of some pretty common every day food experiences. Let’s face it, most people have a lot going on in their lives – we make 35,000 decisions per day (apparently!), 200 of them are food-related, though we are conscious of about 12-15 of them. Many people don’t have the bandwidth to be directly  making decisions about what to eat day-in, day-out (hence food plans like mine are awesome, btw). That’s what makes it so easy to ‘succumb’ to takeaways at the end of the day (I say ‘succumb’ as I know many people think it’s lack of willpower. Well, no, it’s more decision fatigue than anything else). Dogma around diet is, after all, the appeal of following it – someone else has deemed what you can eat and what you can’t. This takes the thinking out of it and works perfectly fine… until it doesn’t. And it doesn’t take long for it to start causing more headaches than not. The type of rules, then, that I’m thinking about are those which are akin to brushing your teeth. You just do them, they are non-negotiable. Once you get into the habit of them, you don’t even have the think about it.

The types of rules I’m thinking about include:

  1. Never eat standing up (therefore omitting mindless snacking).
  2. Brush your teeth after dinner (to avoid snacking later in the evening).
  3. Have at least one serve of vegetables at breakfast, and 2-3 at lunch and dinner.*
  4. Put all junk food in the house in an opaque container and keep high up in the pantry, so they aren’t having to see it every time they open the cupboard to prepare meals (out of sight, out of mind).
  5. Choose a protein choice (meat, eggs, fish) and vegetables first when eating a meal out, and then (if still hungry), choose something else. This will fill you up, so there is less room for other foods that are easy to overeat.
  6. Order dressings and sauces on the side (so you can control how much you use).

Instead of feeling anxious about having to decide what to eat, then constantly second-guessing what to do, simple guidelines like these can help you make better decisions in any context. They take the thinking out of it, therefore less energy is wasted and they aren’t constantly ruminating about what to eat. This creates less anxiety and neuroticism, and people can feel empowered and confident in their food decisions.  It’s less about the availability of specific food choices and more about way food is eaten, the environment it is eaten in, and the type of food. You don’t need to be perfect to be awesome, you just need to be consistent, and consistently approaching food in the same way (not deciding that you’ve ‘blown it all, so you’ll binge’ whenever you make a choice not deemed ‘suitable’ as part of your dietary regime).

From clinical experience, I find most people respond well to strategies such as those mentioned above.

One Simple Health Rule copy

If only it were this simple. (PC: theironyou.com)

Coffee: your friend or foe?

Coffee. It’s like the world’s favourite elixir. Mine included. For an athlete, there are many studies supporting its use as an ergogenic aid for athletes – helping reduce rates of perceived pain and effort, improving muscle fibre recruitment and enhancing glycogen repletion post-workout. These benefits are individual, however, and while research suggests that genetic differences in our ability to detoxify caffeine could account for this, it is not a universal finding. This is something true for athletes and non-athletes alike.

Other features of coffee are also salient for all individuals. Caffeine is ketogenic; not only can it help mobilise fatty acids to be used for energy, it increases the presence of ketones in the bloodstream – hence it is a good pre-workout fuel to help elicit fatty acid oxidation pathways and provide fuel for the workout in the absence of glucose. This doesn’t necessarily translate in additional body fat loss (more important lifestyle strategies are required for that, such as a caloric deficit, resistance training, reduction in stress etc), but can encourage these energy pathways to be upregulated, helping in the process of becoming adapted to a lower carb dietary approach.

Coffee improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance (potentially related to the polyphenols present, though the mechanism is currently unclear), therefore enhancing the effects of both a lower carb approach, or a plan that includes fasting (either intermittent fasting, super-fasting, or a 5:2 approach such as the one in my fat-loss plans). Further, anyone doing my accelerated fat loss plans who have that 16h intermittent fast on the ‘fasting mimicking’ days could experience a more potent effect from the fast by including black coffee alongside water as their beverages of choice.

Autophagy, where our body starts to clear out damaged cells from the liver, heart and muscle tissue, is one of the benefits of fasting as you know. In mice models it might take just 16 hours for this to occur, in humans it is likely to take a lot longer given the differences in our metabolic rate (a mouse has a faster metabolism). Consuming caffeine on an empty stomach (or as part of a fast) promotes autophagy, which theoretically would shorten the time that is required to fast to stimulate this process. It also triggers AMPK, an enzyme that inhibits fat storage, promotes fat burning and activates antioxidant networks. These properties are thought to underpin much of the purported health benefits of drinking coffee.

It IS a balance though – if you’re following a fasting protocol, working out, and reading this at 3.30am in the morning, it’s a good sign that your brain is wired – raising cortisol to the extent that it’s (quite obviously) disrupting sleep. When we fast, like exercise, it places a stress on the body – this is where many benefits come from, as your body responds and adapts, becoming more resilient. However, too much of anything is too much! If coffee on top of your fasting regime or exercise program (or, life in general) is causing this stress response, then it is worth dialling it back a bit (or go 1/2 and 1/2 with decaf) to see if this changes your stress response.

Caffeine (or coffee), though, may not be good for anyone with gut issues. As it can stimulate the stomach cells to release more gastric juices, aiding in digestion, we often hear that too much coffee promotes a highly acidic environment and as such, could increase the risk of damage to the cells and subsequent gut issues. The literature, though, reports that caffeine does not negatively impact gastric or duodenal ulcers, and in fact when administered in vitro, could help repair cells damaged by inflammatory bowel conditions such as ulcerative colitis, and is also protective for the mucosal layer of the gut. Research suggests this is because caffeine increases blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, caffeine can lower the tone of the oesophageal sphincter – the valve that controls the release of stomach acid into the oesophagus, thus may promote heartburn and reflux.

With all research studies, it’s important to remember you are your own best investigator when it comes to how coffee affects you. I’ve said this before, but a good point to reiterate. The best advice, then, is to pay attention to how you feel when you drink coffee. Does drinking coffee make you more wired, especially when you fast, indicating it stimulates your stress (or cortisol) response? Does it give you reflux or heartburn? Does it upset your digestive tract more than settle it? Everyone has a different tolerance level to coffee, and further, our ability to detoxify it may also be different. If you feel great when you have coffee, and you don’t have any gut-related issues, then it is likely absolutely fine for you. If you notice an irritated gut, or you feel a bit wired, then it isn’t worth persevering with coffee for the purported health benefits – in your case, it might be making things worse.

coffee2

Ahhh… coffee 🙂

Does HIIT take a hit on a ketogenic diet?

Much of the research points to the utility of a keto diet for increasing fat oxidation for longer, slower training. After a period of adaptation, athletes are then able to tap into an alternative fuel source which affords them an extensive supply of fuel at a steady rate, unlike carbohydrate (glycogen) stores which are limited and easily depleted in a moderate-long training session. Thus, it stands to reason athletes are able to go for longer than if they are straight carb-burning athletes in an endurance event – something that Maunder and colleagues discuss in this most recent paper outlining the practical application of a low carbohydrate diet for athletes of varying abilities. However many of the recent randomized trials (such as this one here) have found that performance, particularly at the top-end of the spectrum, is compromised when athletes switch to a lower carbohydrate approach. Further, the relative effort at a given heart rate is increased. You go slower, but it feels harder. Ouch. This understandably makes an athlete’s coache a little nervous to recommend their athletes go on a lower carbohydrate diet.

Interesting though, this is not the experience of many people I work with who transition to a lower carb diet. If anything, performance improves for the athlete (something I’ve written a lot about over the last few years, including this blog here). Given enough time, any reduction in power that occurs early in the transition phase appears to be reversed and the athlete comes out leaner, stronger and fitter in their endurance training. Reducing reliance on carbohydrate as a training fuel reduces the oxidative damage that occurs during training, thus inflammation is reduced. They aren’t placing their body under as much oxidative stress and therefore the athlete can train more consistently during the season with less risk of stress-related injury and illness. This may also be due to a higher presence of beta hydroxybutyrate in the bloodstream, which act as signalling molecules and increase the transcription of enzymes that encode antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase, catalase 2 and glutathione peroxidase. This helps scavenge free radicals created through training and protects the athlete from tissue damage. This may be one of the reasons why they are seeing better results with their key races.

Two of my mates felt similarly, and experienced similar benefits of adhering to a low carbohydrate diet, experiencing no detriment to high intensity training, despite what the research deemed. So they decided to test the hypothesis.

They took 18 male endurance athletes who were habitually eating a standard western diet, and randomised them to consume either their normal diet (control group), or a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet, consisting of no more than 50g carbs per day for four weeks, and performed graded exercise tests before and after the experiment, and a HIIT session (5x3min, work/rest 2:1, passive recovery, total time 34min) before, and after 2 and 4 weeks.

The researchers found that (as expected) fat oxidation levels increased in the experimental group throughout the tests, and total time to exhaustion, performance in the HIIT session and rate of perceived exertion was no different between the groups. Ergo, the ketogenic diet did not impact the athlete’s ability to undergo high intensity training (nor make it seem harder for them). Interestingly, the level of protein in the diet was around 29%, higher than the 17% used in other studies – this could account for the level of ketones present in the blood stream that were lower at the end of the study (0.4 mmol/L), just out of the ‘nutritional ketosis’ range. The difference this may have made to the athletes’ performance, however, we don’t really know.

Many of the studies conducted that have found performance is reduced are likely too short to allow the athletes to adapt to a ketogenic diet, which is thought to take several weeks to months. Hopefully this new research makes you think twice about taking the results of a study like such as the one here, as a reason to dismiss the low carbohydrate diet for athletes.

To recap, then, of what we know is possible for athletes following a lower carbohydrate approach:

As a side note, lots of peeps look at the elite athlete who chows down on carbohydrate in racing and during everyday life and thinks to themselves that, if they can perform to that standard eating a higher carb approach, then why can’t I? A couple of points to note:

  • The elite athlete may train from 20-30 hours per week – by default they spend a lot of time in a depleted state, meaning they are likely training low glycogen as it is impossible to replenish carbohydrate at the rate they are burning it. This is going to afford them the same capacity to train in the lower carb state that provides enhanced training adaptations. The average age grouper may have time to train 12-18h a week maximum, and don’t have the volume available to get into the low glycogen state.
  • They are elite for a reason. They are able to go harder and faster than most people –psychologically they are able to hurt more and potentially go longer before they bonk – we age-groupers have more of a preservation mindset. They may also be able to train harder when in an inflamed state for this reason. I’m not saying this is ideal (far from it). I’m just putting it out there as a reason why there are professionals who are able to see results where others don’t.
  • Even at the top of the field the elite athlete can suffer, and far more than an age-grouper. Years of a nutrient-poor, carbohydrate rich diet and overreaching to the point of overtraining will leave an athlete burnt out and unable to continue on at the level they previously enjoyed. It might appear that elite athletes are bullet proof but I’m sure as you’re reading this you’re thinking of someone who falls into this category. Things aren’t always as they appear, and the golden glow of success can be pretty fleeting.
  • Of course, there are others who are just awesome and continue to turn up and take it out year after year, regardless of diet, training methods, lifestyle etc. Like the people who drink every day, smoke like a chimney and don’t eat vegetables, yet live to 102 years.
  • Re: racing high carbohydrate – that Maunder paper again – worth a read.

hiit-for-cyclists01c52

Hungry?

One of the things that clients fear most is being hungry. When I talk to some of them about removing snacks and eating just three times a day (or 1-2 times, depending on their individual plan), there is a look of fear that comes into their eyes. For others, though, they almost relish the opportunity to feel hungry because it has been forever since they’ve felt the grumbling in their stomach that tells them they are ready for food. This doesn’t, however, mean that they never eat! But it does affect their enjoyment of food – and, let’s face it, food is not only fuel, but it is one of life’s pleasures. One that, for many, they’ve denied themselves the opportunity to experience.

Which camp do you fall into, why do you feel that way, and how do you change your mindset around hunger (if you need to?)

Why do you fear being hungry?

In my clinical experience there are two main reasons why people are scared to be hungry. Firstly, hunger is not actually just felt in your stomach, your entire being experiences it. If your hunger comes on suddenly and without warning (you go from feeling fine to being ravenous), if it changes your physical state (ie you start feeling light headed, lacking in energy, maybe even start sweating) and your emotional state (you feel irrationally angry, sad or conversely, on something of a high before a big energy crash), then our emotion around being hungry can be one of fear. No-one likes being shunted from one emotional state to another, particularly if it comes completely without warning, which is often the case in this type of scenario. The fear of over-eating in response to this physiological and emotional state is the second reason for being scared to be hungry. When they do finally get to eat, they don’t trust they will make good decisions around food, and thus starts a (sometimes perpetual) cycle of fear, eating, self-punishment, eating….

What gives? This kind of hunger isn’t hunger at all – it’s blood sugar. Whenever we eat too little, or too little of nutrients that regulate our appetite hormones (nutrients such as protein, fibre and fat) at a meal, it is going to cause our blood sugar to drop and – in some instances – drop too rapidly. This response from our blood sugar sends an alarm signal to our brain that we are in danger (or potential danger) of having no fuel on board. In evolutionary times, this could have meant almost certain death: we wouldn’t have fuel to either fight for our life or run for our life. There may be no sabre-tooth tigers lurking around in everyday life now, but our body’s genetic blueprint hasn’t changed in that regard. Those ringing alarm bells drive us to search for food and do it fast – hence the rapid change in our physical and emotional state. The type of food our brain tells us to seek out is that which is going to deliver quick energy – sweet or starchy food. That is what will bring our blood sugar back to within normal range and get us out of the state of emergency our brain was experiencing. The problem is, though, is that the type of food we go for is the same as what got us into the blood sugar position in the first place.

No wonder you are scared to be hungry, and you feel you can’t trust yourself around food. While one option is to eat frequently (thus, almost to prevent being hungry), this isn’t the best approach. Every time you eat, you send signals to your body that you’ve taken on board fuel, therefore causing changes in your blood sugar levels and creating a hormonal environment that is more favourable to fat gain. In addition, it’s likely the types of food you are snacking on are those which created this blood sugar problem in the first instance (this is not your fault! We’ll blame the 80s-early 2000s for that, and the message to eat ‘six small meals a day’*). They may not be high in free sugar (ie ‘junk’ foods), but they could well be low in fat, fibre or protein, all potent regulators of our blood sugar. Cue the creation of the same problem as if you had just eaten a high sugar snack. Your body doesn’t know the difference without a good amount of the aforementioned nutrients to go alongside it.

If not ‘eat more often’, then what? Eat more but eat less often. The main driver of this is fluctuating blood sugar levels, therefore to combat this we need to fill up more at our meal times (be it 1, 2 or 3 times per day) to avoid a dramatic drop in them. The approach to eating I advise takes care of that for you. As I said, this physiological response is because you’ve eaten too little (or too little of the right** foods) in the first place. Your blood sugars won’t rise to the same extent, will be buffered by the additional protein, fibre and fat, so will decrease at a far slower rate, thus there will be no alarm bells ringing, and no stress response. Hunger will come on gradually (perhaps 4 hours after a meal) and, if you were called into a meeting, you would be able to concentrate on the situation at hand, rather than be distracted, irritated or hangry.

And what if you fall into the other camp, when you are never hungry? The main reason for this is often due to the first scenario – you are pre-emptively eating, thus never allowing yourself the opportunity to digest food and wait for your body to send signals to your brain that you are hungry. More often than not, this is because you are scared to be hungry (so, back to the first reason then). However, there is also another factor I see that impacts on appetite – and it is stress. If you are in an elevated state of ‘doing’, and are constantly on the move, stress hormones can suppress your appetite – therefore eating is somewhat of a chore, something that you feel you should do and therefore you don’t enjoy it. Conversely, you don’t eat which leads you to overeating later in the day when you are finally able to relax. Interestingly, a lot of clients report that, in both scenarios I have described, they continue to eat after having a normal (or larger) size meal because they are not satisfied.  This is usually despite the fact that physically they feel full, but emotionally they are somewhat empty. If you don’t take the time to enjoy your food (and it’s something you derive pleasure from) then no amount of additional food at this time is going to make you feel better. In fact, most people report feeling worse. Taking the time to sit down and enjoy your food helps you to listen to your body and eat when you are truly hungry.

*like anyone knew what six small meals a day were – most examples were enough to feed a 110 kg body builder, not a person trying to maintain a size they felt comfortable at.

**foods higher in protein, fibre, with added fat for satiety.

 

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This caterpillar was, in fact, very hungry. (PC: scholastic.com)

The non-food reasons you’re constantly craving…

Cravings. We all have them at one time or another, and while a lot of it can largely be mitigated by building your diet around a foundation of good quality protein, fat and fibre, with the addition of some unrefined carbohydrates, for whatever reason sometimes even this is not enough to withstand the temptation to snack on something you wouldn’t otherwise grab. Not only is it distracting to be thinking about food, cravings do in fact reduce cognitive ability– affecting our ability to recall information.

Why is it that sometimes your energy and appetite is well supported by your diet, and other times they are not? Well, first – it’s not all about the food (obviously!) Here are other reasons for an increase in cravings that are often overlooked.

  1. Lack of sleep: this is one that we can all attest to: a bad night’s sleep makes it more difficult to resist the call of that raw vegan cake in the local café. That’s because even one night of sleep restriction (less than 6 hours of sleep) will affect the feedback-reward loop in your brain that makes you crave sweet (or salty, fatty) processed food. Lack of sleep will enhance the reward factor, leading to a more intense craving AND you’ll gain even more pleasure from eating it. Like anything that feeds into this pathway, though, the amount needed to satisfy the craving will increase the more you have it. One night’s rubbish sleep will also increase the body’s cortisol response – sending signals to your liver to dump glucose into the blood stream – this shift in blood sugar levels causes other hormones to kick into gear (such as insulin) and in no time at all, blood sugar levels drop -causing you to crave foods that are high in carbohydrate to bring them back up to within normal range. This fluctuation in blood sugar creates highs and lows in your energy levels, but ultimately leaves you feeling far worse than you would have otherwise.
  2. Stress – see above for why a situation that leaves you feeling overwhelmed causes you to crave sweet or fatty, salty food and the effects of this. The situation itself, though, can also drive you to the vending machine outside of any blood sugar changes. Eating in response to stress is a distraction technique that will take your mind off what is going on around you, and many find themselves eating food they don’t want to eat, in amounts they don’t want to be consuming, as a way to avoid the stressor.
  3. Coffee – as a stimulant, coffee may affect the food choices of people who are sensitive to its effect. If you are sensitive to its stimulant effects, then the changes in stress hormones may cause the same blood sugar management issues that I’ve discussed earlier. However, it coffee can affect food choices in another way too – recent researchhas found that caffeine can dull our perception of a sweet taste by blocking the adenosine receptors in our brain. The same mechanism that increases our alertness may drive a preference for sugary foods as we don’t get the expected level of sweetness.
  4. Alcohol – another blood sugar disruptor, alcohol also causes a disinhibition of behaviour. While people can easily forgo a platter of food with no alcohol onboard, 1-2 drinks later and suddenly we don’t really care if we eat 1 cracker or 10. Alcohol increases the release of dopamine in the brain, much like eating sugar does. Over time we become less sensitive to the effects of dopamine and require more of a substance to help us get the same effect. This is another reason why we may have sugar cravings after drinking alcohol. Finally, to point out the obvious, alcohol disrupts sleep patterns and there is a disinhibition of the different sleep phases. We don’t get the type of sleep that is most restorative and therefore wake up feeling unrefreshed and lacking in sleep. I’ve explained above the effects that this has on our food cravings, and alcohol will further compound the issue.
  5. Hormones. When oestrogen levels drop, serotonin levels also drop (as serotonin requires oestrogen for its production). For some women, then, shifts in hormones across the month, and heading into menopause can trigger cravings where they would otherwise not have any. So that sugar/chocolate thing? It’s a physiological drive that can be super hard to ignore.

What to do about your cravings?

Obviously, the first thing I’m going to mention address the situations or triggers above. The more you prioritise good sleep hygiene and stress management, the better you are able to manage your diet, it is that simple. I’ve talked about both of these in more detail here and here, with tips to help you nail both. Further, consider your eating habits around the consumption of coffee and alcohol. If your intake is increasing, or at a level that you think might be too high for you, cutting down on both of these could help. If you’re unsure then ask a good friend their opinion, as it can help to have objective advice from someone you trust.

The second thing? Read this article I wrote last year, detailing some helpful food strategies and supplements which may support blood sugar and cravings, including chromium, 5Htp, magnesium and cinnamon.

The third thing? Use a distraction technique. Sometimes cravings are associated with a time of day, with boredom or (as mentioned) stress. Put some strategies in place to help offset the craving. Too often, the psychology around eating foods we crave is about ‘giving in’ – this brings about a sense of failure and people berate themselves for a lack of willpower. The food that we’re eating in this scenario is often eaten standing up, in front of the fridge or the pantry, is eaten quickly (for fear of being caught) and then brings about a sense of shame that we couldn’t ‘control ourselves’. Often, too, the mindset of ‘I’ve blown it’ leads to further unhelpful thought patterns – such as ‘I’ve had one biscuit, I might as well consume the entire packet as it’s the last time I’ll ever eat biscuits.’ Let’s be real: this won’t be the last time you’ll eat biscuits. And you haven’t ruined anything.

A distraction strategy might include (as it does for some clients of mine): having two glasses of water, brushing your teeth and getting outside for a brisk walk (of even 2 minutes). Then, if you are still craving something (or feeling like eating something), make the decision to have it. BUT you must eat it in a way that allows you to engage fully in the process. Get a plate or bowl, serve yourself some of whatever it is, then sit down and (where possible) using cutlery to eat it slowly, savouring the flavours. And really enjoy it. Then move on.

If you need a good food strategy to help mitigate your cravings, check out my real food meal plans – providing a 28 day meal plan each month along with personalised nutrition coaching to help meet your goals.

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Junk food that’s not off the hook.

Overcoming stumbling blocks on a ketogenic diet: a case study

I had a client contact me for an email consultation this week. She was frustrated as, despite following a ketogenic diet (where carbs are restricted to 30g or below, over 70% of calories should come from fat, and protein is moderated), she was unable to get into ketosis.

I had a look at her food diary and could quite quickly see where I thought she could change things to help enhance her ketogenic approach. With her blessing, she’s allowed me to share this with a wider audience. Like many things, if one person is having challenges finding the right balance in their diet, there are likely many more people doing very similar things and potentially experiencing the same frustrations.  I focused on some of the main issues I saw.

You’ll notice there are foods that don’t align with ketogenic diets OR would be included in any diet for someone wanting to shed fat. We (the client and I) spoke on that in general, as clearly she knows this (i.e. cheesecake). The points I focused on were those that can trip people up that she might not be aware of. I’ve screenshot her food diary, and then my comments are below.

Her diet:

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Major points – unable to get into ketosis despite sticking to under 30g carbohydrate per day. This is measured by a blood ketone meter, and she wondered if she needed to add more fat to do this. Her overall goal is weight loss.

The thing with weight loss and the ketogenic diet, if you follow the advice from Phinney and Volek, pioneers of the ketogenic diet space, part of the energy your body needs to consume should come from your own fat stores, and not be provided for by diet. It’s a common misconception, as I see many people embark on a ketogenic diet for fat loss purposes but the opposite occurs – they gain weight. A common strategy at this point is to further reduce carbohydrate intake and bump up the fat. However, this will often further exacerbate weight gain (and frustration around the approach). Worst case scenario here is when the frustration leads to ‘to hell with it’ and that low carb diet is supplemented with all manner of processed refined carb junk food because ‘what’s the point? I can’t do this anyway, I’m useless and it’s not working for me.’ Clearly the end result of this self-punishment is further fat gain, some horrible carb cravings and a bad psychological state. Needless to say, I don’t think adding in more fat is the answer in this instance (and for this client), however I do think that tweaking what she is already doing is going to help.

It’s also good to remember that blood ketones aren’t the be all and end all – these indicate ketones in your bloodstream but sometimes, when these are low, this just means we are using them for energy – which is what you want! This is more likely to be the case in an athlete rather than anyone who is generally just active. In this case example,  I think the diet is the main reason for her not being in ketosis, rather than that the client is using ketones efficiently. However,  it is worth remembering that if you are following a ketogenic diet and are not seeing the expected results on the blood ketone meter.

Finally (and something I mentioned to the client) you don’t need a ketogenic diet to successfully lose weight, and sometimes focusing instead on the pointers I give at the end, regardless of ketosis, will give the same end result. Something like my online menu planner and individualised nutrition coaching. However, I would recommend in that instance to up the protein (double the recommendation I give you) and drop back the fat intake, as people often find that far more satisfying and easier to adhere to – which ultimately is THE most important thing with any dietary approach.

Key issues I picked up:

  • Too much protein in one sitting/in general
  • Processed foods
  • Dairy
  • Unintentional free sugar

1.Milk –  both the sugar in a cup of milk and the protein (whey) will raise insulin levels, thus put you out of ketosis. This is true of skim and standard milk.

2. Protein cookies: the type of sweetener/fibre used to make it a lower carb item can also spike insulin. For some people it is definitely a dose response thing going on – they can eat ½ cookie no problem, but a whole one will kick them out of ketosis. For any items like these, and if you do have blood glucose or blood ketone meters, it can be good to get a reading after a certain dose to see what effect they have for you. At any rate, highly processed goods can still negatively impact on blood sugar and appetite regulation in the absence of them being carb-based.

3. Coconut water – contains 3g sugar per 100ml or thereabouts. Any amount of free sugar in the diet is going to impact pretty quickly on your blood sugar levels if you haven’t just finished exercising, and kick you out of ketosis. The types of carbs you want to be having in your diet are specifically non-starchy carbohydrates -the majority of any carb sources coming from green leafy vegetables, other colour vegetables, perhaps some pumpkin/carrot depending on their effects on your blood sugar.

4. Grapes: any fruit is going to impact on your blood sugar levels, and particularly grapes – even if you stick within your limit of carbohydrate, the sugar from these are going to hit your bloodstream pretty quickly and cause an insulin response, thereby lowering ketones, especially if eaten outside of a meal that contains fat and/or protein (both of which slow down the glucose from hitting the blood stream). Fruit is typically best avoided on a ketogenic diet, aside from lemons, grapefruit, some berries.

5. Protein content of meals: for most, these need to be lower unless an individual is athletic. If struggling with getting into ketosis, it can be good to lower protein consistently to 1g/kg ideal body weight. For this particular client, this is 65g per day. Many days are consistently above this. In addition, the amount of protein in any one meal makes a difference – ideally, not more than 30g protein in any one sitting and, for you, likely 20g in a meal. This is obviously going to differ from person to person – as mentioned, athletes who have a greater energy output can generally get away with more protein (and more carbohdyrate) compared to a person who is sedentary or just lightly active.

6. Timing of food: eating within a restricted window (and not eating later in the evening) can help a ketogenic diet – our liver’s ability to metabolise carbohydrate is dictated in part by a ciracadian rhythm;  we are naturally more carbohydrate sensitive in the AM, less so in the PM, so carbs are likely to spike insulin more in the evening. In addition, fasting naturally upregulates ketone production and can help accelerated ketosis. Further, snacking can (for some) keep them from being out of ketosis, so 3 meals, or 2 meals plus a snack is recommended.

Key recommendations:

1. Drop protein down in each of the meals so you are averaging approximately 20-25g at meals.

2. Time any foods that have a greater amount of carbohydrate in them for after exercise (ie lower sugar fruit, or nuts that have a higher carb count such as cashews). The body doesn’t need to rely on just the action of insulin to deliver carbohydrates to cells in this instance, as we have receptors called GLUT-4 receptors in our muscles and in adipose tissue that can take up carbohydate and are activated post-exercise. Remember, an increase in insulin suppresses the production of free fatty acids, the precursors to ketone bodies.

3. Engage in exercise to help upregulate ketone production – aerobic/weight training.

4. Fasting for 14h at a time to help body produce ketones. Now for women, fasting can be a great tool, but can also backfire (read more about that here). Generally speaking, the fasting approach can be something that is incorporated 1-2 x per week if fat loss is a goal, and on other days, opt for a 12h window between dinner one night and breakfast the next day. The most important thing, though, is to be aware of negative changes to energy, how you feel, mood and sleep patterns – all underlying signs of a stress response that you might not be able to cope with.

5. Focus on diet quality – so the carbs, protein, fats are coming from whole foods and not processed or snack foods – ie protein cookies, fat bombs etc

6. Remove drinks / foods that contain easily digested carbs even if they fall within the carb count for the day. You’ll feel far more satisfied (and it is far more nutritious) to get your carbohydrates from green leafy vegetables which also contains a good amount of fibre.

7. Dairy – stick to hard cheeses and forgo the softer cheese/milk.

These are just some pointers from this client’s diet; another practitioner may pick up others. I will reiterate my point, however, in that a ketogenic diet, when done purely for weight loss, isn’t always the best approach and, for alot of people, unsustainable and too much like hard work. If you’re struggling to get the balance right and not seeing the results, then there are definitely other alternatives out there – one which will fit your lifestyle, eating behaviour, budget and allow you to lose weight with far less effort. It’s adherence that is key. Let me help you with that.

Selection of healthy fat sources

Delicious, nutritious food regardless of your dietary approach.

My diet approach: less rigidity and more ‘real life’

A couple of comments on my Facebook page, a comment from a client that she wasn’t  ‘my perfect client’, and a post from one of my good nutritionist friends inspired me to have a bit of a think about how I approach nutrition, or the expectations that others have of my nutrition approach.

Whenever I put something out on social media, people will read from it what they will – I want them to comment and engage (why else would I put a post up?)  One of these was a comment I got after posting a recipe up on my page. Someone commented that she was very concerned that I say I follow a minimally processed diet approach, yet used a protein powder in my pancake recipe, clearly a highly processed ingredient*. She’s not wrong – protein powder is highly processed for sure, even the brands that I use and recommend others do: those that don’t have a lot of added ingredients bar the protein powder, some flavouring and stevia-based (or thaumine) sweetener . It got me thinking though. This person was annoyed that I was straying from their perception of what I advocate. If I could include protein powder in my recipes, clearly I’m not an advocate of the real food approach. How could people trust anything I say if I suggest that protein powder is okay? I wasn’t living up to her expectations of me, and she was disappointed.

It’s a tough balance: when I changed my philosophy around food I think I was a lot like other people – went too far in the extreme of finding the perfect real-food approach in an effort to ditch processed food. Legumes and all grains were off the menu (regardless of dietary tolerances, as this was the ‘perfect paleo’ way). All bread was to be avoided at all costs. Only drink red wine (less sugar) … It was 95% of what you’d call a ‘primal’ approach.

Like most people, though, I have settled in an approach to eating that is more practical to real life and, frankly, less exhausting. I have my diet non-negotiables –for me, I don’t touch diet soft drinks and chewing gum. In fact, I had a dream a few months ago that someone offered me a piece of gum and I took it. I woke up in a panicked state. This is because around 6 years ago I couldn’t go a day without having Wrigley’s Extra gum, and now I am scared that if I have it again that it would be a quick slide back into a daily habit that I couldn’t stop (even though when I gave it up it was literally like a switch had gone off in my brain and I couldn’t imagine having it again). I don’t have food allergies, so unlike other people, there isn’t anything that I must avoid or I’d be seriously compromising my health. That said, if I was eating the way I did during my Master’s degree at Otago, I couldn’t last during the day – I’d regularly have to nap in the afternoon under my desk after a diet coke and a massive ciabatta bun from Il Panificio bakery for lunch, which was backing up a large milky trim cappuccino and a dark rye sesame bun for breakfast. A carb overload and no fat or protein will do that to me (and a lot of people) – and don’t get me wrong – I LOVED it (and still would!) Just not how it makes me feel and, unfortunately, now I know too much about the long-term implications of eating such a nutrient-void diet). Huh. And I was doing a Master’s in nutrition at the time…

For everything else, though it is more about dietary principles rather than strict rigidity. Less religion and more realness. I try to avoid vegetable seed oils and artificial sweeteners that impact on blood sugar levels. However, if there is a dip that someone has brought along to a dinner party that has canola or sunflower oil as the second ingredient, I would likely have some if I thought it sounded nice, even if I wouldn’t buy it myself.  I avoid eating soy – especially products that use it as a cheap protein filler as you’ll find it in many packaged goods, though by now living in a vegetarian/vegan household, I eat organic tofu around once a week – and really enjoy it. I consume gluten when I have (for example) a date scone, or I really feel like toast. This might be once a fortnight. I drink wine. I have 3-4 alcohol free nights per week, but enjoy red wine (and coming into summer, white wine too – even though it has a higher residual sugar count). Not a lot – 1-2 glasses, and what they serve at the local bar is probably a more generous pour than we have at home. I like chocolate. I eat Quest protein bars (the varieties that don’t have sucralose as a sweetener in them – some do, some don’t) and use these as a bit of a stop gap as when training intensity ramps up (as it has over the last couple of months). I’m just hungrier in general and am not always organised. Despite their ‘organic’ label, these are about as far away from real food as you can get.

We buy white bread – the stock standard cheap loaves – as this is one of the only things that never comes home in the school lunch box during the week. If you’re wondering, I don’t think there is too much difference between white and multi-grain bread, really – it is all rubbish. I don’t eat it myself (any toast I have would be out at a cafe, a more delicious type of sourdough or ciabatta, probably), and can justify it till the cows come home but truth be told, getting any food in some kids can be difficult, so if they will eat a white bread egg or cheese sandwich that is going to at least fill them up, then so be it. A friend of mine commented on how she laughs when I post about lunchbox options for kids – and how (for her at least) it’s just a little unpractical and/or even if the kids show interest one day, the next they won’t have a bar of it. Now I get it. I really think I didn’t have a true appreciation for this and if I can somehow crack the nut that is ‘school lunches’ then I’d probably be a gazillionaire. One day. Maybe. (And if you have any bright ideas that I might not have thought of, pass them on!)

So, yeah. I still call my dietary principles ‘minimal processed food’ relative to the food environment and where I was at 7 years ago. Sorry to disappoint or concern anyone. Or perhaps this just makes you feel a little relieved that, despite best intentions, it doesn’t read like a perfect food environment or a perfect food diary, even for someone with my nutrition qualifications and practical experience. But that’s real life, and we do what we can. Some days are awesome, some weeks are awesome, and some, well, some just aren’t. That’s life, right? And when the dust settles, I’m pretty happy with it actually.  If you do what you can and have the best intentions going into it – then you’re always going to do better than if you didn’t try at all.

So please don’t think you have to be perfect – I’m not and nor should you stress about striving to be so. If you want some guidance at reaching your ‘happy spot’ click here to book a consultation or check out my online nutrition coaching services.